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CRASSULACEAE STONECROP FAMILY

Steve Boyd, except as noted

Annual to shrub [(± tree-like or climbing)], fleshy. Leaf: generally simple, alternate or opposite, in dense to open, basal (or terminal) rosettes or basal and cauline, not in rosettes, reduced distally or not, margin often ± red. Inflorescence: generally cyme, generally bracted. Flower: generally bisexual; sepals generally 3–5, generally ± free; petals generally 3–5, ± free or fused; stamens >> to = sepals, epipetalous or not; pistils generally 3–5, simple, fused at base or not, ovary 1-chambered, placenta 1, parietal, ovules 1–many, style 1. Fruit: follicles, generally 3–5. Seed: 1–many, small.
± 33 genera, ± 1400 species: ± worldwide, especially dry temperate; many cultivated for ornamental. [Eggli (ed.) 2003 Illus Handbook Succulent Plants 6 (Crassulaceae). Springer] Water-stressed plants often ± brown or ± red. Consistent terminology regarding leaves, bracts difficult; in taxa with rosettes (e.g., Aeonium, Dudleya, some Sedum), structures in rosettes are leaves, those on peduncles are bracts, and those subtending flowers are flower bracts; in taxa where inflorescence is terminal, rosette leaves may "become" bracts as stem rapidly elongates to form inflorescence. Seed numbers given per follicle. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Crassulaceae

DUDLEYA DUDLEYA, LIVEFOREVER

Stephen Ward McCabe

Perennial herb, fleshy, glabrous, bisexual. Stem: generally caudex- or corm-like, branched or not, ± covered with dried leaves. Leaf: in rosettes, evergreen or ± deciduous in summer (withering, falling or not), waxy or not, base wounding purple-red (yellow) or generally not. Inflorescence: cyme; flower bracts ± subtending pedicels, < bracts; bracts alternate. Flower: sepals 5, fused below; petals 5, fused at base, erect to spreading above; stamens 10, epipetalous; carpels 5, ± fused below. Fruit: follicles 5, erect to spreading, many-seeded. Seed: < 1 mm, narrowly ovoid, brown, striate.
± 46 species: southwestern North America; some used as groundcover or cultivated for ornamental. (W.R. Dudley, 1st head of Botany Department, Stanford University, 1849–1911) [Thiede 2003 in Eggli (ed.) Illus Handbook Succulent Plants 6 (Crassulaceae):85–103. Springer] Fruit just before opening generally most reliable for orientation; insect damage may cause branching in taxa characterized as non-branching.
Unabridged note: Whether or not leaves of Dudleya cymosa subsp. costatifolia, Dudleya saxosa subsp. saxosa, Dudleya variegata wound purple-red, red, yellow, or some other color at base when removed is evidently unknown.

Key to Dudleya

D. virens (Rose) Moran
NATIVE
Rosettes many, 4–25 cm wide. Stem: 1–8 cm wide. Leaf: evergreen, 3–25 cm, 15–30 mm wide, oblong, 4–6 mm thick, in ×-section ± elliptic or in upper 1/2 round, glaucous or not, ± fragrant or not. Inflorescence: peduncle 6–70 cm, 1.5–15 mm wide; 1° branches 2–many, branched 0–3 ×; terminal branches 1–10 cm, 3–20-flowered; pedicels 1–5 mm. Flower: sepals 2–4 mm, acute; petals 7–10 mm, 2–3 mm wide, fused 1–2 mm, elliptic, acute, white to pale yellow, some with red, keels rose or orange-brown. 1 other subsp., Guadalupe Island, Mexico. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: 1 other subsp., Dudleya virens subsp. extima Moran, Guadalupe Island, Mexico.

D. virens subsp. insularis (Rose) Moran ISLAND GREEN DUDLEYA
NATIVE
Rosettes 10–25 cm wide. Stem: 2–6(8) cm wide. Leaf: 20–50, outer ascending to erect, 6–25 cm, 10–32 mm wide, 2–4 cm wide at base, 2–4 mm thick, triangular-lanceolate, ± wide-elliptic in ×-section in upper 1/2, generally glaucous, tip ± obtuse. Inflorescence: peduncle 6–70 cm, 5–15 mm wide, erect, not easily broken when dry; 1° branches several, branched 0–1 ×, terminal branches 1–5 cm, 3–8-flowered; pedicels 2–3 mm. Flower: sepals 2–3 mm; petals 8–10 mm, fused 1.5–2 mm, spreading from middle, white, keels with red to orange-brown.
2n=34. Rocks, cliffs; < 200 m. South Coast (near San Pedro, Los Angeles Co.), s Channel Islands (San Nicolas, Santa Catalina islands). Hybrids with Dudleya virens subsp. hassei suspected. Apr–Jun [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 31 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Dudleya, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=80220, accessed on Oct 31 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Dudleya virens subsp. insularis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.