|University of California, Berkeley|
|Directory News Site Map Home|
|Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present , generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base ± elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules  generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). [Munzinger & Ballard 2003 Syst Bot 28:345–351] Lengths of lowest petal including spur. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Baird, V.B. 1942. Wild violets of North Am. University of California Press, Berkeley. Beattie, A. J. and N. Lyons. 1975. Seed dispersal in Viola (Violaceae):adaptations and strategies. Amer. J. Bot. 62: 714–722. Brainerd, E. 1921. Violets of North Am. Vermont Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 224. Brizicky, G.K. 1961. The genera of Violaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 42: 321–333. Clausen, J. 1929. Chromosome number and relationship of some North American species of Viola. Annals of Botany. 43: 741–764. Clausen, J. 1964. Cytotaxonomy and distributional ecology of western North American violets. Madroño 17:173–197. Gershoy, A. 1928. Studies in North American violets. I. General considerations. Vermont Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 279.]
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals ± equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3  mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8–75.Key to Viola
± 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. (Latin: classical name) Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).
Unabridged references: [Baker, M.S. 1949a. Studies in western violets. IV. Leafl. West. Bot. 5: 141–147; Baker, M.S. 1949b. Studies in western violets. VI; Madroño 10: 110–128; Baker, M.S. 1957. Brittonia 9: 217–230; Ballard, H.E. 1992. Systematics of Viola Section Viola in North Am north of Mexico. M.S. thesis, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan; Ballard, H.E. 1994. Violets of Michigan. Michigan Botanist 33: 131–199; Davidse, G. 1976. A study of some Intermountain violets (Viola Sect. Chamaemelanium). Madroño 23: 274–283; Fabijan et al. 1987. The taxonomy of the Viola nuttallii complex. Can. J. Bot. 65: 2562–2580; Gil-Ad, N.L. 1995. Systematics and evolution of Viola L. subsection Boreali Americanae (W. Becker) Brizicky. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Gil-Ad, N.L. 1997. Systematics of Viola subsection Boreali-Americanae. Boissiera 53: 1–130; Hitchcock, C.L. 1961. Vasc. Plant. Pacific NorthW. Vol. 3; McKinney, L.E. 1992. A taxonomic revision of the acaulescent blue violets (Viola) of North Am. Sida Botanical Miscellany, 7: 1–59; McKinney, L.E. and N. Russell. 2002. Violaceae of the Southeastern United States. Castanea 4: 369–379; Russell, N.H. 1965. Violets (Viola) of the central and eastern United States: an introductory survey. Sida 1: 1–113]
Perennial herb 3.5–30(35) cm, glabrous to puberulent. Stem: prostrate to erect, generally many, often woody at base in age, generally some much elongated by end of season, clustered on 1–several caudices generally at ground level, from woody rhizome. Leaf: simple; basal 1–4 per caudex, glabrous to hairy, petiole 0.5–13.5 cm, blade 0.5–6.6 cm, 3.6–4.8 cm wide, ovate to ovate-triangular, entire to crenate, base cordate, truncate, or long-tapered, tip acute to obtuse; cauline petiole 0.5–12.1 cm, blade 0.6–4.2 cm, 0.4–4. 4 cm wide, ± like basal. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 1–10.3 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate, not ciliate; petals light to deep violet, lower 3 white basally, veined dark violet, lateral 2 bearded with cylindric hairs, lowest 7–21 mm, spur 3–7 mm, generally elongate, conspicuous, straight or tip hooked. Fruit: 6–11 mm, short-ovoid, glabrous. Seed: 1.5–2 mm, dark brown to olive-black.
2n=20,30,40. Vernally moist meadows, damp streambanks, meadow edges in conifer forest, generally shade; < 3570 m. California Floristic Province (generally mtns; to 0 m North Coast), Warner Mountains; to Alaska, Yukon Territory, eastern North America, New Mexico. Polymorphic, with many named variants. Often confused with Viola nephrophylla (stem 0). Larval food plant for 3 federally endangered or threatened butterflies. Apr–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Listed as the larval food plant for federally endangered Behrens' silverspot butterfly (Speyeria zerene behrensii) in Mendocino Co., Myrtle's silverspot butterfly (Speyeria zerene myrtleae) in Marin and Sonoma cos., and the federal threatened Oregon silverspot butterfly (Speyeria zerene hippolyta) in Del Norte Co.
Previous taxon: Viola
Next taxon: Viola arvensis
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 9 2013
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Viola, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=79074, accessed on Dec 9 2013
Copyright © 2013 Regents of the University of California
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.
|Bioregions in which Viola adunca subsp. adunca occurs||Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.|
Chart based on elevation range in eFlora and elevations and coordinates of CCH records.
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
Note: About half of the CCH records include both elevation and coordinates.
| Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
CCH collections by month