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ASTERACEAE (Compositae) SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, except as noted

Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1–many in generally ± cyme-like cluster; each head generally with ± calyx-like involucre of 1–many series of phyllaries (involucral bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1–many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into ± persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3–5; stamens 4–5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally ± 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing ± brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
± 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Bahia; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Taxa of Arida in TJM2 treated here in Leucosyris. —Scientific Editors: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.

Key to Asteraceae

AGOSERIS

Gary I. Baird

Annual or perennial herb from taproot, occasionally with branched caudex, generally scapose; sap milky. Leaf: generally all basal, generally lanceolate to oblanceolate, long-tapered to obtuse, entire, toothed, or 1–2-pinnately lobed, 1° lobes generally ± opposite, generally on proximal 2/3; 2° lobes 0–1; faces glabrous to densely hairy, hairs generally white-opaque and glandless. Inflorescence: heads liguliflorous, 1, erect, long-peduncled; involucre cylindric to ovoid or bell-shaped in flower, ovoid in fruit, glabrous to densely hairy, hairs white-opaque and glandless or colorless- or yellow-translucent (occasionally with purple cross-walls) and glandular, glands generally yellow, occasionally purple; phyllaries in 2–5(+) series, ± equal in flower, often strongly graduated in fruit, generally entire, green to rosy-purple, often with darker spots or midstripe, outer erect or tips spreading to recurved, inner erect, elongating with fruit or not, ± reflexed when dry; receptacle flat, epaleate (paleate), generally pitted. Flower: 5–500; ligules ± equaling to much exceeding involucre, yellow, or orange, pink, red, or purple, readily withering. Fruit: cylindric to fusiform or obconic (inflated), ± 10-ribbed, generally ± white to brown or purple-black (gray), glabrous to minutely coarse-hairy or puberulent; beak << to >> body (0); pappus of many fine, simple, white bristles.
11 species: America. (Greek: chief or goat + chicory, meaning is obscure) [Baird 2006 FNANM 19:323–335] Closely related to Nothocalais. Self-pollination complicates variation in some species; polyploidy and hybridization blur distinctions between some taxa.
Unabridged references: [Baird 1996 Ph.D. Dissertation Univ of Texas, Austin]

Key to Agoseris

A. ×dasycarpa Greene
NATIVE
Perennial herb 15–45 cm, erect or petiole decumbent. Leaf: petiole not purple; blade (6)10–30 cm, ± oblanceolate, obtuse to long-tapered, entire or few-toothed or -lobed; lobes 1–4 pairs, (ob)lanceolate, generally angled towards leaf tip or spreading; glabrous and glaucous to densely hairy. Inflorescence: peduncle generally hairy or ± glabrous in age except distally, base of head ± hairy (± glabrous), ± glandless; involucre 10–30 mm in flower, ± same in fruit; phyllaries in 3–4 series, generally rosy-purple except margin; outer ± lanceolate, tapered to acute, ± hairy (± glabrous), hairs generally ± yellow-translucent, glandular, margin ± ciliate (glabrous); inner not elongating in fruit. Flower: generally 10–50; tube 4–10 mm, ligule 5–15 mm, exceeding involucre, yellow; anthers 3–5 mm. Fruit: outer ± different; body 6–9 mm, ± fusiform, tip generally ± narrowed; ribs straight, uniform, glabrous to ± minutely rough-hairy; beak 1–2 mm, generally << body; pappus 8–10 mm, in generally 2 series.
Moist meadows, marshes, dry grassland, open forest; 1100–2500 m. n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau; to Oregon. Localized hybrid populations (Agoseris glauca var. glauca × Agoseris monticola) generally appearing as hairy Agoseris glauca var. glauca or misplaced Agoseris monticola, and generally misidentified (often as Agoseris glauca var. agrestis, which is restricted to Colorado). May–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Agoseris decumbens Greene]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 25 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Agoseris, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=77674, accessed on Oct 25 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Agoseris X dasycarpa Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.