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ASTERACEAE (Compositae) SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, except as noted

Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1–many in generally ± cyme-like cluster; each head generally with ± calyx-like involucre of 1–many series of phyllaries (involucral bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1–many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into ± persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3–5; stamens 4–5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally ± 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing ± brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
± 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Bahia; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Taxa of Arida in TJM2 treated here in Leucosyris. —Scientific Editors: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.

Key to Asteraceae

HELICHRYSUM

Guy L. Nesom

[Annual to perennial herb] subshrub, shrub, often aromatic, taprooted. Stem: tomentose, generally stalked- or sessile-glandular. Leaf: cauline; alternate, [sessile] petioled, linear to ovate or spoon-shaped, tapered to truncate at base [clasping or decurrent], entire, faces 1-[or 2-] colored, generally gray- to white-tomentose or silvery hairy, sometimes stalked- or sessile-glandular. Inflorescence: heads [disciform or] discoid, in groups in ± flat-topped cyme-like clusters; involucre bell-shaped; phyllaries in 3–5[7] series, persistent, spreading in fruit, bases green, generally sessile-glandular distally, distally ± white [straw-colored, orange, ± red, or ± pink], opaque [or transparent], generally shiny; receptacle [flat to] convex, epaleate, smooth or with short scales. Pistillate flower: 0 [to few, peripheral; corolla yellow, ± minutely lobed]. Disk flower: 3–30[50+]; corolla generally yellow; anther base with bristle-like tail, tip lanceolate; style tips truncate, hair-tufted. Fruit: cylindric, smooth or 4–6-ribbed, glabrous, strigose, or papillate; pappus of barbed or plumose bristles in 1 series, deciduous, free or loosely clinging together at base.
± 600 species: mostly Old World, especially Madagascar and southern Africa. (Greek: sun + gold, an ancient plant name) [Nesom 2006 FNANM 19:425–426]
Unabridged references: [Hilliard & Leistner 1983 Fl Southern Africa 33 (pt 7, fasc. 2):200–202; Nesom 2006 FNANM 19:425–426]

H. petiolare Hilliard & B.L. Burtt LICORICE PLANT
NATURALIZED
Stem: <= 100+ cm, loosely branched, straggling or trailing, sometimes rooting at soil contact, loosely gray-tomentose. Leaf: blade 1–3.5 cm, ovate to ± round, base widely tapered to truncate or ± cordate, tip obtuse to ± acute, faces silvery green, tomentose. Inflorescence: heads discoid, many, in long-stalked rounded or flat-topped clusters; involucre 3–7 mm diam; phyllaries in ± 5 series, proximally appressed, green-centered with transparent margins, loosely tomentose, distally ascending to ± spreading, creamy white, glabrous, tips rounded; receptacle scales ± 0.8 mm, linear, dark brown in age. Disk flower: 18–30, corolla ± 2.5 mm. Fruit: ± 1 mm, widely cylindric, 5-ribbed, glabrous; pappus 3–3.5 mm.
Cult as ornamental, escaped into coastal scrub, forest; < 200 m. Central Coast, South Coast; Europe; native to southern Africa. Jul–Aug {Weed listed by Cal-IPC} [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Helichrysum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=77426, accessed on Apr 23 2014

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.