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BORAGINACEAE BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY

Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted

Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.

Key to Boraginaceae

ECHIUM
Annual, biennial, [perennial herb], shrub; strigose to bristly-hairy. Leaf: basal and cauline, linear to lanceolate, entire. Inflorescence: panicle-like cymes, terminal; branches 3–many, ± spike-like. Flower: radial to ± bilateral; calyx deep-lobed, often longer in fruit; corolla throat straight or ± curved, lobes equal or not; stamens 5, attached below mid-tube, included or exserted; style exserted. Fruit: nutlet erect, short, ovate, 3-angled, scar basal, flat.
40 species: southern Eurasia, Africa. (Greek: viper, from nutlet shaped like viper's head) Several entities cultivated for ornamental, especially on California coast, some potentially naturalized, some may be hybrids.
Unabridged references: [Bramwell 1972 Lagascalia 2:37–115]

Key to Echium

E. pininana Webb & Berthel. TOWER OF JEWELS
NATURALIZED
Short-lived, once-flowering shrub 20–30+ dm. Stem: generally unbranched. Leaf: basal rosette leaves 25–50 cm; cauline many, 10–30 cm, lanceolate to widely lance-ovate, sparse-bulbous-based-bristly. Inflorescence: 100+ cm, ± dense-cylindric; branches many, ascending, short. Flower: ± bilateral; calyx 4–5(7) mm; corolla tube 2+ × calyx, limb 10–13 mm diam, blue; stamens long-exserted. Fruit: ± brown, prickly.
2n=16. Disturbed areas, steep slopes; < 240 m. s North Coast, c Central Coast, sporadic; native to Canary Islands. May–Aug [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Echium candicans
Next taxon: Echium plantagineum

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 24 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Echium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=77364, accessed on Oct 24 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Echium pininana Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.