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Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
Annual, hairy, taprooted. Stem: ± erect; branches 0–many. Leaf: basal and cauline, sessile, entire. Inflorescence: raceme-like cymes, ± terminal; bracts leaf-like; pedicels erect in fruit. Flower: calyx ± deep-5-lobed, enlarged in fruit; corolla 5-lobed, funnel-shaped, appendages present; style entire. Fruit: nutlets generally 4, ovate, covered with ± long, barbed prickles, scar lateral.Key to Lappula
12–14 species: northern hemisphere, especially Asia. (Latin: little bur)
Stem: 0.5–3.5 dm. Leaf: 1–4 cm, linear to lanceolate. Inflorescence: pedicel 1–2 mm. Flower: calyx 3–3.5 mm in fruit, lobes lanceolate, ± erect in fruit; corolla 1.5–2.5 mm diam, white to occasionally blue. Fruit: nutlet 2–3 mm, marginal prickles in 1 row, bases ± or much wider, generally fused. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Lappula occidentalis (S. Watson) Greene]
Unabridged note: Lappula redowskii var. cupulata generally in warmer, drier places than Lappula redowskii var. redowskii.
Fruit: nutlet margin prickles much wider at base, fused into swollen crown.
Very dry, open, rocky, often disturbed sites; 600–2200 m. Great Basin Floristic Province, Mojave Desert; western North America. Mar–Jun [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Lappula redowskii
Next taxon: Lappula redowskii var. redowskii
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 26 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Lappula, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=77288, accessed on Jul 26 2014
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