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EUPHORBIACEAE SPURGE FAMILY

Mark H. Mayfield & Grady L. Webster, except as noted

Annual to shrub, tree [vine, cactus-like succulent]; monoecious or dioecious; sap clear or milky. Stem: generally branched [fleshy or spiny]. Leaf: generally simple, alternate to whorled, generally stipuled, sessile or petioled; blade entire, toothed, or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers solitary or in terminal or axillary cymes, racemes, spikes, or panicles, or (in Euphorbia) 1° inflorescence a compact, flower-like cyathium with much-reduced flowers enclosed within an involucre of fused bracts, cyathia terminal or axillary, 1 or in cyme-like arrays. Flower: unisexual, ± radial; sepals 0 or 2–6, free or fused; petals generally 0(5); stamens 1–many, free or filaments fused; ovary superior, chambers (1)3(4), styles free or fused, undivided, forked, or variously lobed. Fruit: generally capsule that splits into mericarps that then dehisce, releasing seeds. Seed: 1 per chamber; knob-like appendage sometimes present at attachment scar.
217 genera, 6000+ species: ± worldwide especially tropics; some cultivated (Aleurites, tung oil; Euphorbia species; Hevea, rubber; Ricinus). Many species ± highly TOXIC, due primarily to latex, especially if eaten or in contact with skin, eyes. [Yang et al. 2012 Taxon 61:764–789] Eremocarpus moved to Croton, Tetracoccus moved to Picrodendraceae for TJM2; Chamaesyce moved to Euphorbia here (key to genera revised by Thomas J. Rosatti). —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Euphorbiaceae

DITAXIS
Annual to subshrub; sap clear; generally monoecious; hairs 0 or generally 2-branched, generally appressed. Stem: spreading to erect, 1–10 dm. Leaf: alternate, stipuled. Inflorescence: raceme, axillary; staminate flowers generally distal to pistillate flowers; axis appressed- to spreading-hairy; bracts entire. Staminate flower: sepals 5, edges abutting in bud; petals 5; stamens 5–15, generally in 2 sets, some > others, filaments fused into a column, staminodes 0–3 at column tip. Pistillate flower: sepals 5, overlapping in bud; petals 5; nectar disk ± dissected; ovary 3-chambered, styles 3, 2-lobed. Fruit: smooth. Seed: surface ± striate to pitted [net-like]; scar not appendaged.
± 50 species: tropics, warm temperate America. (Greek: 2-ranked, from 2 sets of anthers)

Key to Ditaxis

D. claryana (Jeps.) Webster GLANDULAR DITAXIS
NATIVE
Annual or perennial herb. Stem: 1–5 dm; some hairs simple and spreading, others 2-forked and appressed. Leaf: 1–4 cm; stipules 1.5–3 mm, gland-toothed; blade lanceolate, abaxially hairy, margin finely gland-toothed. Staminate flower: sepals 3.5–5 mm, hairy; petals ± = sepals, glabrous or hairy; stamen column 1.5–2 mm. Pistillate flower: sepals 3.5–5.5 mm, unequal, faces glabrous or hairy, margins stalked-glandular; petals ± = sepals; ovary sparsely hairy, styles fused proximally, lobe tips expanded. Fruit: ± 4.5 mm. Seed: ± 2 mm, angled, faintly pitted.
Sandy soils, creosote-bush scrub; < 100 m. Sonoran Desert (Coachella Valley). [Ditaxis clariana (Jeps.) Webster, orth. var.] Dec–Mar [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}
Unabridged synonyms: [Ditaxis adenophora (A. Gray) Pax & K. Hoffm., misappl.]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 26 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Ditaxis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=77239, accessed on Nov 26 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Ditaxis claryana Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.