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BERBERIDACEAE BARBERRY FAMILY

Michael P. Williams

Perennial herb, shrub, [tree], generally rhizomed, caudexed or not, glabrous, glaucous, or hairy. Stem: spreading to erect, branched or not. Leaf: simple, 1–3-ternate, or pinnately compound, basal and cauline, generally alternate, deciduous or evergreen, petioled, stipuled. Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, or panicle, scapose, terminal, or axillary. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 6–18 or 0, generally in whorls of 3; petals generally 6, in 2 whorls of 3, or 0; stamens 6–12(13), free or fused at base, in 2 whorls or not, anthers dehiscent by flap-like valves or longitudinal slits; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovules generally 1–10, style 1 or 0, stigma flat or spheric. Fruit: berry, capsule, achene [follicle].
16 genera, ± 670 species: temperate, tropics worldwide; some cultivated (Berberis, Epimedium, Nandina (heavenly bamboo), Vancouveria). [Wang 2007 Syst Bot 32:731–742] Lower sepals sometimes called "bracteoles," inner petals "staminodes". —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Ernst 1964 J Arnold Arbor 45:1–35]

Key to Berberidaceae

ACHLYS VANILLA LEAF
Perennial herb; rhizome scaly; caudex short, erect; wood, especially of roots, often yellow. Leaf: 1–few, basal, long-petioled, 1-ternate; leaflets triangular to fan-shaped, bases tapered. Inflorescence: ± scapose, spike, dense; lateral flowers generally unisexual, terminal bisexual. Flower: perianth 0; stamens (8)9(13), anther valves flap-like, curled inward; ovule 1, style 0, stigma ± flat, furrowed. Fruit: achene, curved, furrowed, brown to red-purple.
2 species: western North America, Japan. (Greek: thin mist or obscurity, from inconspicuous flowers)
Unabridged references: [Terabayashi 1981 Bot Mag (Tokyo) 94:141–157]

Key to Achlys

A. triphylla (Sm.) DC. subsp. triphylla
NATIVE
Plant 2–4 dm; rhizome internodes 2.5–5 cm. Inflorescence: 2.5–5 cm. Fruit: 3–4.5 mm.
2n=12. Moist shaded sites, conifer forest; < 1830 m. North Coast, w Klamath Ranges, w Outer North Coast Ranges; to British Columbia. Other subsp. in Japan. Apr–Jun [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Achlys californica
Next taxon: Berberis

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 21 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Achlys, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=77185, accessed on Sep 21 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Achlys triphylla subsp. triphylla Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.