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Annual to perennial herb; rarely dioecious (Silene), taprooted or rhizome generally slender. Leaf: simple, generally opposite (subwhorled), entire, pairs at nodes often ± connected at bases; stipules generally 0; petiole generally 0. Inflorescence: generally cyme, generally open; flowers 1–many; involucre generally 0 (present in Dianthus, Petrorhagia). Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium often present but obscure; sepals (4)5, ± free or fused into a tube, margins generally scarious, more so on inner 2 or not, tube generally not scarious, awns generally 0; petals (4)5 or 0, generally tapered to base (or with claw long, limb expanded), entire to 2–several-lobed, limb generally without scale-like appendages adaxially, generally without ear-like lobes at base; stamens generally 10, generally fertile, generally free, generally from ovary base; nectaries 0 or 5; ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, placentas basal or free-central, styles 2–5 with 0 branches or 1 with 2–3 branches. Fruit: capsule or utricle (rarely ± dehiscent), generally sessile. Seed: appendage generally 0 (present in Moehringia).
83 or 89 genera, 3000 species: widespread, especially arctic, alpine, temperate northern hemisphere; some cultivated (Agrostemma, Arenaria, Cerastium, Dianthus, Gypsophila, Lychnis, Sagina, Saponaria, Silene, Vaccaria). [Rabeler & Hartman 2005 FNANM 5:3–215] Apetalous Caryophyllaceae can also be keyed in Rabeler & Hartman 2005 FNANM 5:5–8. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Caryophyllaceae
Annual, biennial, prostrate to erect, taprooted. Leaf: blade needle-like; vein 1. Inflorescence: axillary, dense; flowers 1–5, ± sessile. Flower: hypanthium widely obovate to urn-shaped, abruptly expanded distally, in fruit hard; sepals 5, free, 1.5–4 mm, narrowly triangular to awl-shaped, glabrous, margin thinly scarious; petals 0; stamens 2–10, on hypanthium rim; styles 2. Fruit: utricle, ovoid. Seed: 1.
10 species: Eurasia, Africa, Australia. (Greek: hard flower, from hypanthium in fruit) [Thieret & Rabeler 2005 FNANM 5:149–151]
Stem: prostrate to erect, much-branched, generally 4–20 cm, rigid; hairs ± in lines, fine, recurved. Leaf: 4–20+ mm; sheath scarious, ciliate; tip sharp-pointed. Inflorescence: 3–15 mm diam. Flower: 3–4.2 mm; hypanthium 10-ribbed; sepals narrowly triangular to awl-shaped, erect to spreading; styles ± 0.8–1 mm. Seed: 1.4–1.6 mm, widely ovoid, tan except red crescent near acute tip.
2n=44. Meadows, stream margins, serpentine areas, disturbed areas; 300–1200 m. Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada, c Sierra Nevada Foothills, Peninsular Ranges; to British Columbia, Saskatchewan, eastern North America; native to Europe. All year [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: 7 other subspecies, native to Europe, western Asia, northern Africa.
Previous taxon: Scleranthus
Next taxon: Scopulophila
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 24 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Scleranthus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=77174, accessed on May 24 2015
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|Scleranthus annuus subsp. annuus|
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© 2005 Steve Matson
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Scleranthus annuus subsp. annuus|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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