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IRIDACEAE IRIS FAMILY

Peter Goldblatt, except as noted

[(Annual), shrub], perennial herb generally from [bulb], corm, or rhizome. Stem: generally erect, generally ± round in ×-section. Leaf: generally basal (few cauline), 2-ranked, ± sword-shaped, blade edge-wise to stem, with midvein or not; bases overlapped, sheathing. Inflorescence: generally ± terminal; spikes, umbel-like cymes, or flowers 1; flowers in spikes or 1 subtended by 2 subopposite flower bracts; umbel-like cymes enclosed by 2 subopposite, generally large, leaf-like inflorescence bracts, including various flower bracts. Flower: bisexual (unisexual), radial, with stamens erect, enclosing style, or bilateral, with stamens, style to 1 side, stamens not enclosing style; perianth radial, parts free or generally fused into tube above ovary, generally petal-like, in 2 series of 3, outer ± like inner (or not, in Iris, parts in that genus called sepals, petals), upper ± like lower or not; stamens 3, attached at base of outer 3 perianth parts or in tube, generally free; ovary inferior [(superior)], [(1)]3-chambered, placentas axile [(parietal)], style 1, branches 3, entire to 2-branched, thread- or petal-like with stigma abaxial, proximal to tip. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal. Seed: few to many.
± 65 genera, ± 2050 species: worldwide, especially Africa; many cultivated (e.g., Crocus, Dietes, Freesia, Gladiolus, Iris, Sisyrinchium). [Goldblatt & Manning 2008 The Iris Family: Natural History and Classification. Timber Press] Gladiolus italicus Mill., Gladiolus tristis L. are urban weeds. Sparaxis grandiflora (D. Delaroche) Ker Gawl., Sparaxis tricolor (Schneev.) Ker Gawl. are waifs. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Iridaceae

CROCOSMIA
Corm round to ovoid, often making stolons, cover fibrous. Stem: generally branched. Inflorescence: spike or panicle of spikes, > leaves. Flower: radial or bilateral; perianth funnel- to trumpet-shaped, orange to brick-red, tube generally curved, lobes ± spreading, ± equal [unequal], spreading; stamens free, exserted from tube; style ± > stamens, branches notched at tip [entire]. Seed: generally 12–many, some occasionally aborted.
8 species: ± sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar. (Greek: saffron odor, from dried flowers in warm water) [Goldblatt et al. 2004 Crocosmia and Chasmanthe. Timber Press]
Unabridged references: [DeVos 1984 J S African Bot 50:463–502]

C. ×crocosmiiflora (Lemoine) N.E. Br.
NATURALIZED
Stem: < 1 m. Leaf: 30–60 cm, 1–2.5 cm wide; midvein prominent. Flower: perianth 2–5 cm, lobes < 5 cm wide.
Common. Generally in disturbed coastal areas, roadsides, often from garden waste; < 50 m. North Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast, expected elsewhere; alien in northwestern and southeastern North America, Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, Madagascar, South America. Made in France from Crocosmia pottsii (Baker) N.E. Br. × Crocosmia aurea (Hook.) Planch., both southern Africa; spreading by stolons. Jul–Aug {Weed listed by Cal-IPC} [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 27 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Crocosmia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=77150, accessed on Nov 27 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Crocosmia X crocosmiiflora Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.