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Perennial herb, in soil or on or among rocks; rhizome creeping to erect, scaly. Leaf: generally all ± alike (or of 2 kinds, fertile, sterile), generally < 50 cm, often < 25 cm; stipe generally thin, wiry, often dark, ×-section with vascular strands generally 1–3, less often many in circle; blade generally pinnate or ± palmate-pinnate (see Adiantum), often >= 2-compound, abaxially often with glands, ± powdery exudate, hairs, or scales; segments round, oblong, fan-shaped, or other, veins generally free. Sporangia: in sori or not, marginal, submarginal, or along veins, covered by recurved, often modified segment margins (false indusia) or not; true indusia 0; spores spheric, sides flat or not, scar with 3 radiating branches.
± 40 genera, 500 species: worldwide, especially dry areas. [Windham 1993 FNANM 2:122–186] Definition of Cheilanthes, related genera problematic; traditional limits often untenable. —Scientific Editors: Alan R. Smith, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Pteridaceae
Plant in soil or rock crevices; rhizome short-creeping-decumbent, generally 3–5(8) mm wide, scales lance-linear, mid-stripe dark. Leaf: stipe 5–20(32) cm, 0.5–2(3) mm wide; blade generally 2–3-pinnate, 2–8(15) cm, triangular or generally 5-sided, with white or yellow exudate abaxially, with exudate or not adaxially, main axis shallowly to deeply grooved adaxially; lowermost pinnae more strongly developed on basal side; veins free. Sporangia: along veins ± throughout; segment margins unmodified, recurved or not.Key to Pentagramma
2 species: western North America. (Greek: 5 lines, for leaf blades) A puzzling complex of intergrading chemical, chromosomal, and morphological variants (see Yatskievych et al. 1990 Amer Fern J 80:9–17).
Rhizome tip, scales without exudate. Leaf: stipe brown to red-brown, with exudate or not; blade 3–10(18) cm, generally pale to dark green, adaxially generally without exudate.
2n=60,90,120,150. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Pentagramma triangularis (Kaulf.) Yatsk., Windham, & E. Wollenw.
Leaf: blade adaxially generally glabrous, not sticky, margins not recurved; lower pinnae 2–6(11) cm; upper pinnae, pinnules on basal side of lowermost pinnae deeply pinnately lobed to ± 1-pinnate.
2n=60. Common. Generally shaded, sometimes rocky or wooded areas; < 2300 m. California Floristic Province, Modoc Plateau (caves in Lava Beds National Monument), East of Sierra Nevada, Desert Mountains; to British Columbia, Idaho, Nevada, Baja California. Varies in morphology, cytology, geography, chemistry. Plants with white (instead of yellow) exudate on abaxial blade surfaces have been treated by some as Pentagramma triangularis subsp. semipallida (J.T. Howell) Yatsk. et al. (blades adaxially glabrous) and Pentagramma triangularis subsp. rebmanii Winner & M.G. Simpson (blades adaxially sparsely white-mealy), but further study needed to decide if taxonomic recognition warranted and where the taxa would be placed. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Varies in morphology, cytology, geography, chemistry. Specimens with white exudate on abaxial blade surfaces have been treated by some as Pentagramma triangularis subsp. semipallida (J.T. Howell) Yatsk., Windham, & E. Wollenw. (blades adaxially glabrous) and Pentagramma triangularis subsp. rebmanii Winner & M.G. Simpson (blades adaxially sparsely white-mealy), but further study needed to decide if taxonomic recognition warranted.
Previous taxon: Pentagramma triangularis subsp. maxonii
Next taxon: Pentagramma triangularis subsp. viscosa
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 7 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Pentagramma, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=77121, accessed on Mar 7 2014
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