|University of California, Berkeley|
|Directory News Site Map Home|
|Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Perennial herb, shrub, tree, generally fleshy. Stem: cylindric to spheric, or flat; surface smooth, tubercled, or ribbed (grooved); nodal areoles bearing flowers. Leaf: generally 0 or early-deciduous, flat to ± cylindric. Spines: areoles generally with central, radial spines, occasionally with glochids. Flower: generally 1 per areole, bisexual [unisexual], sessile, radial [bilateral]; perianth parts generally many , scale-like to petal-like; stamens many; ovary inferior [superior], style 1, stigma lobes generally several [many]. Fruit: dry to fleshy or juicy, indehiscent to variously dehiscent, spiny, scaly, or naked; tubercled or smooth. Seed: generally many, occasionally 0–few.
± 125 genera, ± 1800 species: America (especially deserts), Africa; many cultivated, some edible. [Parfitt & Gibson 2004 FNANM 4:92–257] Spines smaller, fewer (0) in shade forms; yellow spines blacken in age. Introduced species increasingly escape cultivation. Hybridization common in some genera. Taxa of Escobaria in TJM (1993) moved to Coryphantha. —Scientific Editors: Bruce D. Parfitt, Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Hunt 2006 The New Cactus Lexicon, DH Books, Milborne Port, England]
Key to Cactaceae
Shrub, tree; roots fibrous [tuberous]. Stem: generally erect, < 6  m; segments generally flat (± cylindric), generally firmly attached; tubercles 0 to ± developed; ribs 0. Leaf: small, conic, fleshy, deciduous, present on young stems, ovaries. Spines: 0–many per areole, cylindric or flat, tip smooth or barbed, epidermis persistent; glochids generally many. Fruit: juicy, fleshy or dry; wall thick, bearing areoles; spiny or not. Seed: in a bony, ± white aril.Key to Opuntia
± 150 species: America; Opuntia ficus-indica cultivated for food, others for ornamental. (Possibly from Papago Indian name ("opun") for this food plant; or for a spiny plant of Opus, Greece) Spines smaller, fewer in shade forms; yellow spines blacken in age. Spineless stems, ovaries, and fruit generally with glochids, these occasionally long, conspicuous; hybridization common. Taxa with cylindric to club-shaped stems moved to Cylindropuntia, Grusonia.
Stem: generally < 0.5 m; branches decumbent or ascending to erect; segments 5.5–20 cm, elliptic to obovate, green, glabrous. Spines: flat to round, generally ± white, base yellow-brown, surrounded by shorter, generally reflexed, whiter spines. Flower: inner perianth 2–2.5 cm, yellow to pink-magenta; filaments generally white (magenta); style white, stigma green. Fruit: 2.5–4 cm, green, tinted red, in age dry, tan. Seed: 5–6.5 mm. [Online Interchange]
Shrub, low. Spines: (1)2–10 per areole, generally brown to black, (4)5–8 cm; straight, generally spreading, shorter spines gray. Fruit: spiny; areoles 11–21, each with 4–18 spines.
2n=44. Uncommon in California. Desert grassland, pinyon/juniper woodland; 1500–2600 m. East of Sierra Nevada; to Colorado, New Mexico. May–Jun [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Opuntia erinacea Engelm. & J.M. Bigelow var. hystricina (Engelm. & J.M. Bigelow) L.D. Benson]
Previous taxon: Opuntia polyacantha var. erinacea
Next taxon: Opuntia robusta
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 5 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Opuntia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=77012, accessed on Mar 5 2015
Copyright © 2014 Regents of the University of California
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Opuntia polyacantha var. hystricina|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
View elevation by latitude chart
| Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
CCH collections by month