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Dale W. McNeal, except as noted

Perennial herb from membranous bulb or scaly rhizome. Stem: underground or erect, branched or not. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, subopposite, or whorled. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, ± umbel-like or not. Flower: perianth parts 6 in 2 generally petal-like whorls, often showy; stamens 3 or 6, filaments free or ± fused to perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or ± so, style 1, entire or 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule or berry. Seed: 3–many, flat or angled, brown to black.
16 genera, 635 species: northern temperate. Users strongly encouraged to protect plants by working around need to see underground parts in using keys, e.g., by trying both leads in couplets solely dependent on such characters. Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. an historical waif in California. Other TJM (1993) taxa moved to Agavaceae (Agave, Camassia, Chlorogalum, Hastingsia, Hesperocallis, Hesperoyucca, Leucocrinum, Yucca), Alliaceae (Allium, Ipheion, Nothoscordum), Amaryllidaceae (Amaryllis, Narcissus, Pancratium), Asparagaceae (Asparagus), Asphodelaceae (Aloe, Asphodelus, Kniphofia), Melanthiaceae (Pseudotrillium, Stenanthium, Toxicoscordion, Trillium, Veratrum, Xerophyllum), Nartheciaceae (Narthecium), Ruscaceae (Maianthemum, Nolina), Smilacaceae (Smilax), Tecophilaeaceae (Odontostomum), Themidaceae (Androstephium, Bloomeria, Brodiaea, Dichelostemma, Muilla, Triteleia), and Tofieldiaceae (Triantha). North American species of Disporum now in Prosartes. —Scientific Editors: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Liliaceae


Mark W. Skinner

Plant from bulb-like, scaly rhizomes (called bulbs here for brevity), generally not clonal, ± glabrous; bulb scale segments 2–many, if segmented. Stem: erect. Leaf: > 12, ± whorled (often some alternate), sessile, spreading with drooping tips to ascending, generally ± elliptic; veins generally 3; stipule 0. Inflorescence: flowers axillary, 1–40+; bracts generally 2 per flower. Flower: generally radial, generally bell- or funnel-shaped; perianth parts 6 in 2 petal-like whorls, ± lanceolate, base narrowed, generally red-purple-spotted adaxially; stamens 6, generally exceeding to much exceeding perianth, anthers attached at middle (measures are after dehiscence); style 1, stigma 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule, erect, generally ± smooth, loculicidal. Seed: many, flat, in 6 stacks.
± 100 species: northern temperate, tropical mountains of eastern Asia. (Greek: lily) Variable, hybridization common. Many species declining from habitat destruction, collecting; few thrive in gardens. Generally flowers May–Aug.
Unabridged references: [Skinner 1988 Ph.D. Dissertation Harvard Univ]

Key to Lilium

L. washingtonianum Kellogg WASHINGTON LILY
Plant < 2.6 m, often glaucous; bulb oblique-elongate to ± erect-ovoid, scales unsegmented, 2-segmented, or indistinctly 2(3)-segmented, longest 3.3–12 cm. Leaf: in 1–9(14) whorls, spreading to ascending, ± clasping stem or not, 3–13 cm, generally oblanceolate; margin wavy or not. Inflorescence: flowers 1–33, nodding to ascending. Flower: generally ± bilateral, ± funnel-shaped, strongly fragrant; perianth parts generally 6.2–11.3 cm (inner wider, strongly oblanceolate), recurved in distal 25–33%, white, turning deep pink or not, magenta spots minute; stamens ± exceeding perianth, filaments ± parallel, anthers 8–15 mm, off-white or cream, pollen yellow or cream; pistil 7.5–10.4 cm. Fruit: 2.7–5.8 cm. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Lilium washingtonianum subsp. purpurascens replaces the Sierran Lilium washingtonianum subsp. washingtonianum near Mount Shasta in Siskiyou Co., and extends western through Klamath Mountains and northern through Cascades to Mt. Hood in Clackamas Co., Oregon.

L. washingtonianum subsp. washingtonianum
Bulb oblique-elongate, scales indistinctly 2(3)-segmented or generally unsegmented. Flower: perianth parts 7.9–11.3 cm, recurved in distal 25–33% rarely turning pink, abaxially generally white, adaxial yellow midrib in basal 50%; anthers off-white or cream, turning pale pink or dirty yellow, pollen pale yellow or cream. Fruit: ribbed or not.
Mixed conifer forest; 1050–1900 m. Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Lilium washingtonianum subsp. purpurascens
Next taxon: Prosartes


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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Apr 2 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Lilium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Apr 2 2015

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click for enlargement Lilium washingtonianum subsp. washingtonianum
See CalPhotos for additional images
2003 Gary A. Monroe

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Lilium washingtonianum subsp. washingtonianum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.