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LILIACEAE LILY FAMILY

Dale W. McNeal, except as noted

Perennial herb from membranous bulb or scaly rhizome. Stem: underground or erect, branched or not. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, subopposite, or whorled. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, ± umbel-like or not. Flower: perianth parts 6 in 2 generally petal-like whorls, often showy; stamens 3 or 6, filaments free or ± fused to perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or ± so, style 1, entire or 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule or berry. Seed: 3–many, flat or angled, brown to black.
16 genera, 635 species: northern temperate. Users strongly encouraged to protect plants by working around need to see underground parts in using keys, e.g., by trying both leads in couplets solely dependent on such characters. Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. an historical waif in California. Other TJM (1993) taxa moved to Agavaceae (Agave, Camassia, Chlorogalum, Hastingsia, Hesperocallis, Hesperoyucca, Leucocrinum, Yucca), Alliaceae (Allium, Ipheion, Nothoscordum), Amaryllidaceae (Amaryllis, Narcissus, Pancratium), Asparagaceae (Asparagus), Asphodelaceae (Aloe, Asphodelus, Kniphofia), Melanthiaceae (Pseudotrillium, Stenanthium, Toxicoscordion, Trillium, Veratrum, Xerophyllum), Nartheciaceae (Narthecium), Ruscaceae (Maianthemum, Nolina), Smilacaceae (Smilax), Tecophilaeaceae (Odontostomum), Themidaceae (Androstephium, Bloomeria, Brodiaea, Dichelostemma, Muilla, Triteleia), and Tofieldiaceae (Triantha). North American species of Disporum now in Prosartes. —Scientific Editors: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Liliaceae

FRITILLARIA FRITILLARY

Dale W. McNeal & Bryan D. Ness

Bulb with 1–several large fleshy scales, 0–many small scales. Stem: erect, simple (0 in non-flowering plants). Leaf: cauline, alternate, subopposite, or whorled below, sessile, linear to ± ovate (1 bulb-leaf in non-flowering plants). Inflorescence: raceme; bracts leaf-like. Flower: generally nodding, bell- or cup-shaped; perianth parts 6 in 2 whorls, each part with distinct glandular area in lower 1/2; stamens 6, included, attached at perianth base, anthers attached ± near middle; ovary ± sessile, style 1, ± entire or 3-branched. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal, thin-walled, ± rounded, 6-angled, or winged, chambers 3. Seed: many, 2 rows per chamber, flat, ± brown.
± 100 species: northern temperate. (Latin: dicebox, from fruit shape) Bulbs of some eaten by Native Americans.
Unabridged references: [Turrill & Sealy 1980 Hooker's Icones Plantarum 34:1–275]

Key to Fritillaria

F. affinis (Schult. & Schult. f.) Sealy CHECKER LILY
NATIVE
Large bulb scales 2–5, small 2–20. Stem: 1–12 dm. Leaf: in 1–4 whorls of 2–8 below, alternate above, 4–16 cm, lance-linear to ovate. Flower: nodding; perianth parts 1–4 cm, oblong to ovate, brown-purple mottled yellow to pale yellow-green mottled purple, nectary 1/2–2/3 perianth, lanceolate, yellow with purple dots; style divided 1/2. Fruit: widely winged.
2n=24,36,48. Common. Oak or pine scrub, grassland; < 1800 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Western California (except Inner South Coast Ranges); to British Columbia, Idaho. [Fritillaria affinis var. tristulis (A.L. Grant) Ness, ined.] Highly variable; needs study; hybridizes with Fritillaria recurva. Mar–Jun [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 20 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Fritillaria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=76930, accessed on Oct 20 2014

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click for enlargement Fritillaria affinis
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© 2005 Doreen L. Smith

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Fritillaria affinis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.