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CAMPANULACEAE BELLFLOWER FAMILY

Nancy R. Morin, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [tree]. Leaf: generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers 1; terminal or in axils of leaf-like or reduced bracts. Flower: bisexual, cleistogamous or open, radial or bilateral, inverted (pedicel twisted 180°) or not; hypanthium generally present, ± fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, petals generally fused, tube deeply divided on 1 side or not, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or ± fused (anthers, filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior or 1/2 inferior (superior in fruit), chambers 1–3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2–5-branched. Fruit: generally capsule, open on sides or top by pores or short valves. Seed: many.
± 90 genera, ± 2500 species: worldwide. [Haberle et al. 2008 J Molec Evol 66:350–361] Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia). Subfamilies sometimes treated as families. Positions of flower parts given after flowering inversion, if any. Parishella moved to Nemacladus. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Lammers 2007 World Checklist and Bibliography of Campanulaceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.]

Key to Campanulaceae

GITHOPSIS BLUECUP
Annual, glabrous to hairy; roots fibrous. Stem: erect, 2–40 cm, 4-angled, branched or not. Leaf: cauline, widely linear to ovate, serrate, sessile. Inflorescence: flowers terminal, bracts 2–4, linear, lanceolate, oblanceolate, to ovate. Flower: not inverted, pedicelled or not; sepals 0.5–3 × ovary, linear to narrowly triangular; corolla cylindric, funnel-, or bell-shaped, throat white, lobes linear to widely ovate, white to deep purple; ovary inferior, obconic or cylindric, narrowed near middle or not. Fruit: open at top irregularly by tears where style falls off, within persistent sepals. Seed: ± 1 mm, angular-fusiform.
4 species: western North America. (Greek: Githago -like) [Morin 1983 Syst Bot 8:436–468] Width in length-to-width ratios of corollas (or ovaries) measured at tube (or ovary) tops.

Key to Githopsis

G. pulchella Vatke
NATIVE
Plant glabrous to hairy. Stem: erect, 4–40 cm. Leaf: 3–20 mm. Inflorescence: bracts 2–15 mm, lanceolate, 2–30 mm apart. Flower: pedicel 0–10 mm; sepals 2 × ovary; corolla 7–24 mm, 1–1.5 × longer than wide, narrowly to widely bell-shaped, lobes < to > tube, light violet to deep blue; filament base wide, ciliate; ovary 2.5–10.5 mm, cylindric to narrowly obconic, 2–5 × longer than wide, base long-tapered, top round, ribs 10, equal, style 4–12 mm, distal 66–90% papillate.
n=10. [Online Interchange]

G. pulchella var. glabra (Jeps.) Morin
NATIVE
Stem: hairs 0 or finely appressed. Flower: pedicels 0–7 mm; sepals 5–10 mm; corolla 10–15 mm; ovary 5.5–7 mm, ± cylindric to narrowly obconic, hairs 0 or finely appressed.
Grassy openings on serpentine outcrops; 180–730 m. n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills. May–Jun [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Githopsis pulchella subsp. pulchella
Next taxon: Githopsis pulchella var. pulchella

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 24 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Githopsis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=76916, accessed on Oct 24 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Githopsis pulchella var. glabra Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.