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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Shrub, tree, evergreen or not; monoecious. Leaf: simple, alternate, petioled; margin entire to lobed; stipules small, generally deciduous. Staminate inflorescence: catkin or stiff spike, many-flowered. Pistillate inflorescence: 1–few-flowered, generally above staminate inflorescence; involucre bracts many, generally overlapping, flat or cylindric. Staminate flower: calyx generally 4–6-lobed, minute; petals 0; stamens 4–12+. Pistillate flower: calyx generally 6-lobed, minute; petals 0; ovary inferior, style branches generally 3. Fruit: 1 nut subtended, partly enclosed by scaly, cup-like involucre or 1–3 nuts subtended, enclosed by spiny, bur-like involucre; mature years 1–2. Seed: generally 1.
7 genera, ± 900 species: generally northern hemisphere. [Li et al. 2004 Int J Plant Sci 165:311–324] Wood of Quercus critical for pre-20th century ship-building, charcoal for metallurgy; some now supply wood (Fagus, Quercus), cork (Quercus suber), food (Castanea, chestnut). Lithocarpus densiflorus moved to Notholithocarpus. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Li, R.-Q., Chen, Z.-D., Lu, A.-M., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., & Manos, P. S. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships in Fagales based on DNA sequences from three genomes. Int. J. Plant Sci. 165: 311–324.]
Key to Fagaceae
Evergreen or not. Leaf: stipules small, generally early-deciduous. Staminate inflorescence: catkins, 1–several, pendent, slender, proximal on twig. Pistillate inflorescence: in upper leaf axils, short-stalked; flower generally 1. Staminate flower: stamens 4–10. Pistillate flower: calyx minute, generally 6-lobed; ovary enclosed by involucre. Fruit: nut 1, partly enclosed by cup-like involucre (cup) with appressed scales (nut and cup = acorn); scales tubercled to not; mature years 1 (on younger stems) or 2 (on older stems).Key to Quercus
± 600 species: northern hemisphere, to northern South America, India. (Latin: ancient name for oak) [Manos et al. 1999 Molec Phylogen Evol 12:333–349] Many named hybrids; those (3) treated here form widespread populations; most others occur as single individuals, and some but not all of these are mentioned here, under the first parent treated (alphabetically). Reproduction of many species declining due to habitat degradation or loss as well as disease.
Unabridged references: [Manos, P. S., Doyle, J. J., & Nixon, K. C. 1999. Phylogeny, biogeography, and processes of molecular differentiation of Quercus subgenus Quercus (Fagaceae). Molec Phylogen Evol 12: 333–349.]
Shrub 1–3 m or ± tree > 3 m, evergreen. Leaf: 1.5–3 cm; petiole 2–4 mm; blade oblong, elliptic, or ± round, adaxially ± flat to wavy, ± shiny, green, abaxially with minute appressed stellate hairs, dull, pale green, tip generally rounded, margin mucro- or spine-toothed. Fruit: cup 12–20 mm wide, 5–10 mm deep, hemispheric to bowl-shaped, thick, scales tubercled; nut 10–30 mm, generally ovoid, tip obtuse to acute, shell glabrous inside; mature year 1.
Dry slopes, chaparral; 100–1800 m. Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Sacramento Valley (Sutter Buttes), Central Western California, Southwestern California; Baja California. Hybridizes with Quercus durata, Quercus engelmannii, Quercus garryana (Quercus ×howellii J.M. Tucker), Quercus john-tuckeri, Quercus lobata. Feb–Apr [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Quercus X alvordiana
Next taxon: Quercus cedrosensis
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Aug 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Quercus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=76903, accessed on Aug 23 2014
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© 2002 Charles E. Jones
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Quercus berberidifolia|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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