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PLANTAGINACEAE PLANTAIN FAMILY

Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1–few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4–5, generally fused at base; corolla 4–5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1–2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, [1]2–4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores.
110 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide, especially temperate. [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2001 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al. Recently treated to include Callitrichaceae, Hippuridaceae, and most non-parasitic California genera of Scrophulariaceae (except Buddleja, Limosella, Mimulus, Myoporum, Scrophularia, Verbascum). California Maurandya moved to Holmgrenanthe and Maurandella. Limnophila ×ludoviciana Thieret an occasional agricultural weed in rice fields. Hebe ×franciscana (Eastw.) Souster, Hebe speciosa (R. Cunn.) Andersen only cultivated. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Plantaginaceae

PENSTEMON BEARDTONGUE

Margriet Wetherwax & Noel H. Holmgren

Perennial herb to shrub. Leaf: generally opposite, entire to toothed; distal sessile. Inflorescence: panicle, raceme, cyme, or flowers in whorls; bracts generally small. Flower: calyx lobes 5, ± equal; corolla tube ± cylindric or lower side expanded, ± 2-lipped, generally pink or blue to purple (some red, yellow, or white), upper lip 2-lobed, external in bud; stamens 4, filament bases glabrous, attached to corolla at different levels, anther sacs 2, valves generally spreading ± flat at dehiscence; staminode attached near base of corolla tube, well developed, generally hairy adaxially; nectaries 2, at bases of upper stamens; stigma unlobed. Fruit: septicidal and sometimes also loculicidal at tip. Seed: generally many, irregularly angled.
250 species: North America, especially western United States. (Latin & Greek: almost thread, from stamen-like staminode) [Wolfe et al. 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1699–1713] Largest genus of flower plants endemic to North America. Penstemon subglaber, Penstemon strictus may persist in High Sierra Nevada, from commercial wildflower seed mixes or plantings; both native to Rocky Mountains.
Unabridged references: [Holmgren 1984 In Cronquist et al. Intermountain Flora 4:370–457]

Key to Penstemon

P. clevelandii A. Gray (Group 4)
NATIVE
Perennial herb 30–70 cm, much-branched; herbage glabrous. Leaf: 20–60 mm, thick, ± ovate. Inflorescence: glabrous or glandular. Flower: calyx 3.5–6.5 mm, lobes ovate to ± round; corolla 18–24 mm, gradually expanded into throat, throat 4.5–8 mm wide when pressed, pink, magenta, or red-purple, unlined, glandular outside and inside (floor lacks nonglandular hairs); anther sacs dehiscing full length; staminode included. [Online Interchange]

P. clevelandii var. clevelandii
NATIVE
Leaf: entire to moderately serrate; distal cauline leaf bases free, cordate-clasping to rounded. Flower: anther sacs 0.8–1.3 mm, spreading flat; staminode glabrous or sparsely hairy.
2n=16. Rocky hillsides, rock crevices in creosote-bush scrub, juniper/pinyon woodland, chaparral; 400–1800 m. Peninsular Ranges/Sonoran Desert; Mexico. Variable; hybridizes with Penstemon centranthifolius. Mar–May [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 30 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Penstemon, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=76763, accessed on Oct 30 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Penstemon clevelandii var. clevelandii Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.