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OROBANCHACEAE BROOMRAPE FAMILY

Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. [Bennett & Matthews 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1039–1051] High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Orobanchaceae

CASTILLEJA PAINTBRUSH, OWL'S-CLOVER

Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual to subshrub, green. Leaf: sessile, entire to dissected. Inflorescence: spike-like; bracts becoming shorter, wider, more lobed than leaves, mature tips generally cream to red or green. Flower: calyx unequally 4-lobed, colored like bract tips; corolla upper 2 lip lobes fused, beak-like, tip open, lower lip reduced, 3-toothed to -pouched; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; stigma entire to 2-lobed, generally exserted. Fruit: ± asymmetric. Seed: generally ± brown, attached at base; coat netted, net-like walls ladder-like or not.
± 200 species: especially western North America. (Domingo Castillejo, Spanish botanist, 1744–1793) [Tank & Olmstead 2008 Amer J Bot 95:608–625] Hybridization and polyploidy common. Biologically consistent taxa difficult to define. Castilleja chrymactis Pennell not in California, sole (1947) record a misidentified, incomplete specimen.
Unabridged references: [Chuang & Heckard 1991 Syst Bot 16:644–666]

Key to Castilleja

C. minor (A. Gray) A. Gray
NATIVE
Annual, ± simple, ± slender, 30–150 cm, green to ± gray, variously hairy. Leaf: 40–100 mm, lance-linear, entire. Inflorescence: 10–40 cm, narrow, open proximally; bracts 20–50 mm, like leaves, entire, tips red, ± long-tapered; proximal pedicels < 10 mm (distal 0). Flower: calyx 14–28 mm, divided 2/3–3/4 abaxially and adaxially, ± 1/8 on sides, soft-hairy, lobes narrow, acute; corolla beak < tube, adaxially ± puberulent, margins pale, lower lip 2–3 mm, ± yellow, exserted from calyx, spreading; stigma slightly 2-lobed. Fruit: 10–15 mm. Seed: 1–1.5 mm; coat ± deeply netted, most walls ladder-like.
2n=24. [Online Interchange]

C. minor subsp. spiralis (Jeps.) T.I. Chuang & Heckard
NATIVE
Puberulent, many hairs nonglandular. Flower: corolla 25–35 mm.
Wet places; < 2600 m. North Coast Ranges, c&s Sierra Nevada Foothills, San Joaquin Valley, Central Coast, n San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast. Jun–Oct [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Castilleja stenantha A. Gray; Castilleja stenantha subsp. spiralis (Jeps.) Munz]

Previous taxon: Castilleja minor subsp. minor
Next taxon: Castilleja mollis

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 20 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Castilleja, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=76739, accessed on Apr 20 2014

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click for enlargement Castilleja minor subsp. spiralis
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1998 John Game

Bioregions in which Castilleja minor subsp. spiralis occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.