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OROBANCHACEAE BROOMRAPE FAMILY

Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. [Bennett & Matthews 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1039–1051] High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Orobanchaceae

CASTILLEJA PAINTBRUSH, OWL'S-CLOVER

Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual to subshrub, green. Leaf: sessile, entire to dissected. Inflorescence: spike-like; bracts becoming shorter, wider, more lobed than leaves, mature tips generally cream to red or green. Flower: calyx unequally 4-lobed, colored like bract tips; corolla upper 2 lip lobes fused, beak-like, tip open, lower lip reduced, 3-toothed to -pouched; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; stigma entire to 2-lobed, generally exserted. Fruit: ± asymmetric. Seed: generally ± brown, attached at base; coat netted, net-like walls ladder-like or not.
± 200 species: especially western North America. (Domingo Castillejo, Spanish botanist, 1744–1793) [Tank & Olmstead 2008 Amer J Bot 95:608–625] Hybridization and polyploidy common. Biologically consistent taxa difficult to define. Castilleja chrymactis Pennell not in California, sole (1947) record a misidentified, incomplete specimen.
Unabridged references: [Chuang & Heckard 1991 Syst Bot 16:644–666]

Key to Castilleja

C. applegatei Fernald
NATIVE
Perennial herb, few-branched, green, generally short-glandular-sticky-hairy and long-nonglandular-hairy. Stem: generally few. Leaf: 20–70 mm, ± lanceolate, generally wavy-margined. Inflorescence: 5–20 cm; bracts 15–25 mm, lobes 0–7, bright red to ± yellow. Flower: calyx divided 1/3–1/2 abaxially and adaxially, ± 1/8 on sides, lobes acute to obtuse; corolla beak ± = tube, adaxially puberulent, margins ± red, lower lip 1–3 mm, dark green, included or exserted; stigma slightly 2-lobed, exserted. Fruit: 8–15 mm. Seed: 1–1.5 mm; coat shallowly netted, loose-fitting, side walls ladder-like. Highly variable complex (other subsp. outside California), unique in combination of glandular-sticky herbage, wavy leaf margins. [Online Interchange]

C. applegatei subsp. pinetorum (Fernald) T.I. Chuang & Heckard
NATIVE
Stem: 30–60 cm. Leaf: lobes 0(3). Flower: calyx 16–25 mm, divided 1/3–1/2 abaxially and adaxially, 1/8–1/5 on sides, lobes lanceolate, acute; corolla 25–35 mm, beak 11–16 mm.
2n=24,48. Open conifer forest, dry sagebrush scrub; 300–3600 m. Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province, n Desert Mountains; to Oregon, Idaho. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Castilleja applegatei subsp. pallida
Next taxon: Castilleja arachnoidea

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 30 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Castilleja, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=76735, accessed on Oct 30 2014

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click for enlargement Castilleja applegatei subsp. pinetorum
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2004 Julie Kierstead Nelson

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Castilleja applegatei subsp. pinetorum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.