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Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to shrub [tree, vine], glabrous to hairy, generally aromatic. Stem: generally erect, generally 4-angled. Leaf: generally simple to deeply lobed, generally opposite, generally gland-dotted. Inflorescence: generally cymes, generally many in dense axillary clusters surrounding stem, generally separated by evident internodes or collectively crowded, spike- or panicle-like, occasionally head-like or raceme, subtended by leaves or bracts; flowers sessile or pedicelled. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx generally 5-lobed, radial to bilateral; corolla generally bilateral, 1–2-lipped, upper lip entire or 2-lobed, ± flat to hood-like, occasionally 0, lower lip generally 3-lobed; stamens generally 4, epipetalous, generally exserted, paired, pairs generally unequal, occasionally 2, staminodes 2 or 0; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed to base chambers 2, ovules 2 per chamber, style 1, generally arising from center at junction of lobes, stigmas generally 2. Fruit: generally 4 nutlets, generally ovoid to oblong, smooth.
± 230 genera, 7200 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for herbs, oils (Lavandula, lavender; Mentha, mint; Rosmarinus, rosemary; Thymus, thyme), some cultivated as ornamental (in California Cedronella, Leonotis, Monarda, Phlomis). [Harley et al. 2004 Fam Generally Vasc Plant 7:167–275] Moluccella laevis L., shell flower, historical waif in California. Satureja calamintha (L.) Scheele subsp. ascendens (Jordan) Briq. reported as alien but not naturalized. Salazaria moved to Scutellaria; California Hyptis moved to Condea, California Satureja moved to Clinopodium. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Lamiaceae
Annual to shrub, ± gland-dotted, scented. Leaf: entire to serrate, margin flat or wavy; petioles 0 or present, often grading into blade. Inflorescence: flowers in compact clusters of >= 1 per main stem, these occasionally arrayed in panicles (rarely spikes); flowers 3–100 per cluster; bracts generally erect in a cup-like involucre or reflexed, reduced in size inward, leaf-like to membranous in texture, green or straw-colored to rose or purple, linear to ovate, acuminate to acute or obtuse. Flower: calyx 5-lobed; 4–25 mm; corolla white to purple or yellow to red, weakly bilateral, upper lip erect, 2-lobed, lower lip recurved, 3-lobed; stamens 4; style unequally 2-lobed.Key to Monardella
> 30 species: western North America. (Latin: small Monarda) [Elvin & Sanders 2009 Novon 19:315–343; Epling 1925 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 12:1–106; Jepson 1943 Fl California 431–444] Complex; study needed; many taxa intergrade; flower cluster width and bract orientation given for pressed specimens. Leaf length including petiole, if present. M. Brunell authored Monardella follettii (in part), Monardella odoratissima (in part), Monardella palmeri, Monardella purpurea, Monardella sheltonii (in part), Monardella stebbinsii, Monardella villosa (in part).
Unabridged references: [Abrams 1951 Ill Fl Pac Sts V III:648–660]
Subshrub, erect, open, ± glabrous, rhizomed. Stem: ± glabrous. Leaf: 16–34 mm (including petiole, 3–4 mm), 8–11(15) mm wide, lanceolate, entire to weakly toothed, adaxially ± glabrous, abaxially densely, minutely, evenly puberulent (hairs < 0.05 mm). Inflorescence: flower cluster 1 per main stem, 10–29 mm wide; bracts 7–17 mm, 4–8 mm wide, exceeding calyx, inconspicuously or not ciliate, cilia generally < 0.5 mm; outer bracts ± leaf-like, only slightly modified, strongly reflexed; innermost bracts linear to ovate. Flower: calyx 6–8 mm, lobes not or slightly hairier than tube; corolla (12)15–20 mm, purple.
Rocky openings, montane forest, oak woodland, chaparral, often serpentine; 425–1600 m. s Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada. Difficult to distinguish. Intergrades extensively with Monardella villosa subsp. villosa (into Klamath Ranges, possibly Oregon) and Monardella odoratissima subsp. pallida (in High Sierra Nevada). Likely best treated as an infraspecific taxon but relationships unclear. Study needed. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Monardella villosa var. sheltonii (Torr.) Jeps.; Monardella villosa subsp. sheltonii (Torr.) Epling]
Unabridged note: Has been applied to many intergrading specimens. Many plants attributed to this taxon appear to be intermediate between Monardella villosa and Monardella odoratissima subsp. pallida. May warrant recognition as a infraspecific taxon of Monardella odoratissima because of its short hairs and the predominant portion of its range in northern Sierra Nevada. Like Monardella odoratissima subsp. pallida and Monardella villosa, has long, reflexed leaves immediately subtending flower clusters. Canada be separated from Monardella odoratissima subsp. pallida by the short hairs or absence of hairs on the bracts and by the glands of the leaves (and elsewhere), which are at the surface of the epidermis, not sunken in pits. Conspicuous golden spheres of exudate (still "liquid" after 50+ years!) are above each gland. In both Monardella odoratissima subsp. pallida and Monardella odoratissima subsp. glauca, the glands are sunken in pits and the exudate does not form clear spheres, but fills the bowl of the pit like soup. Like Monardella villosa except that it lacks the long hairs and the short hairs appear denser; both taxa have the surface glands and exudate spheres.
Previous taxon: Monardella saxicola
Next taxon: Monardella sinuata
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 7 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Monardella, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=76705, accessed on Mar 7 2014
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