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ALLIACEAE ONION or GARLIC FAMILY

Dale W. McNeal

Perennial herb; bulb 1 or on rhizomes, reforming each year; bulblets at bulb bases or on rhizomes; outer bulb coat brown, red-brown, yellow-brown, or gray; inner coats generally white (pink, red, or yellow); onion odor, taste present (except Nothoscordum). Stem: scapose, cylindric, sometimes flat or triangular. Leaf: basal, sheathing stem, linear [or not], cylindric, channeled or flat, generally ± withering from tip by flowering. Inflorescence: umbel (1-flowered in Ipheion), bracts generally 2, splitting and appearing 2+ or not, ± fused, enclosing flower buds, scarious. Flower: perianth parts 6 in 2 petal-like whorls, ± free to fused in lower 1/3–1/2; stamens 6, fused to perianth, filaments widened at base, anthers attached at middle; ovary superior, 3-lobed, chambers 3, ovules 2+ per chamber, style 1, stigma entire or ± 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal. Seed: black, sculpture net-like, smooth, or granular.
13 genera, 750–800 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for food, ornamental. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Alliaceae

ALLIUM ONION, GARLIC
Outer bulb coat generally brown to gray, inner generally white. Stem: scapose, cylindric, triangular in ×-section, or flat. Leaf: basal, 1–5[12] per stem, linear, cylindric, channeled, or flat, generally withering from tip before flower. Inflorescence: umbel, flowers 3–many, rarely all or in part replaced by bulblets; bracts generally 2–4, obvious, ± fused, scarious. Flower: perianth parts ± free, generally with darker or contrasting midvein, outer generally wider; filaments fused into a ring; ovary with 0, 3, or 6 crests, ovules generally 2 per chamber. Seed: obovoid, generally unappendaged.
700 species: generally northern temperate, especially California. (Latin: garlic) [McNeal & Jacobsen 2002 FNANM 26:224–276] Replanting bulbs after study essential for survival of plant; shape, arrangement of cells of outer bulb coat (outer bulb coat sculpture) generally important in identification, generally determined only with magnification; color of outer bulb coat may be masked by substrate; stem lengths from top of bulb to base of inflorescence, not from substrate surface.

Key to Allium

A. membranaceum Traub
NATIVE
Bulb 10–16 mm, ovoid, bulblets in tight cluster at base or not; outer coat sculpture obscure, cells ± square, walls very wavy. Stem: 15–40 cm. Leaf: 2–3, ± = stem, flat. Inflorescence: flowers 15–35; pedicels 10–20 mm, slender. Flower: 7–12 mm; perianth parts spreading, ovate to elliptic, acute, entire, white to pale pink, in fruit papery; ovary crests 6, short, triangular.
n=7. Uncommon. Wooded slopes; 150–1400 m. Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, s High Sierra Nevada. May–Jun [Online Interchange]

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Next taxon: Allium monticola

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 24 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Allium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=76531, accessed on Oct 24 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Allium membranaceum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.