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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Perennial, terrestrial [growing on other plants], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves ± reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not.
Leaf: 1–many, basal to cauline, linear to ± round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile.
Inflorescence: flowers 1–many, spike or raceme, bracted.
Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 ( lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip.
Seed: many, minute.
± 800 genera, ± 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. [Romero-Gonzalez et al. 2002 FNANM 26:490–651] —Scientific Editors: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Luer 1975 Orchids US and Can, NY Bot Garden; Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids of California. Cornell Univ.]
Key to Orchidaceae
Plant 10–130 cm; tubers, 1–4 cm, generally ± round; stem bracts lance- linear to ovate.Key to Piperia
Leaf: at flower 0 or ± basal, not in rosette, 2–5, linear to widely oblanceolate.
Inflorescence: spike or raceme, generally cylindric, flowers not in spiral; flower bract generally < flower.
Flower: fragrance, when present, generally at night; perianth white to green; sepals generally 2–5 mm, 1–2 mm wide, 1-veined, upper pointed forward to erect, lower free, spreading to reflexed; lateral petals ± = sepals, spreading to erect, lip spurred, pointed forward, down (or upcurved); column < lip; ovary inferior, generally twisted 180°.
Fruit: ascending to erect.
10 species: North America. (Charles V. Piper, Am botanist, 1867–1926) [Ackerman & Morgan 2002 FNANM 26:571–577] Some species difficult to separate.
Unabridged references: [Morgan & Ackerman 1990 Lindleyana 5: 205–211]
Plant 14–90 cm.
Leaf: basal 8–20(27) cm, 8–31 mm wide.
Inflorescence: 3–56 cm, open, axis <= peduncle.
Flower: fragrance honey-like; perianth green; upper sepal ascending to pointed forward, lateral spreading to ascending; lip 1.6–4 mm, deltate-ovate, flat, ± straight, spur 2.5–9 mm, pointed back or down.
n=21. Generally dry sites, scrub, chaparral, woodland, forest; < 1500 m. South Coast, s Channel Islands (Santa Catalina Island), San Gabriel Mountains, Peninsular Ranges;
Previous taxon: Piperia colemanii
Next taxon: Piperia elegans
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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Chart based on elevation range in Manual and elevations and coordinates of CCH records.
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
Note: About half of the CCH records include both elevation and coordinates.
| Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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