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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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ADOXACEAE MUSKROOT FAMILY

Charles D. Bell

[Perennial herb], subshrub to tree; hairs often stellate or glandular. Leaf: generally opposite, simple or compound, generally toothed; stipules generally 0. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx teeth or lobes [2]5; corolla small, radial, rotate, lobes [3–4]5; stamens [4]5, epipetalous; ovary ± inferior, chambers 1 or 3–5, 1-ovuled; styles ± 0 or 3–5. Fruit: drupe.
5 genera, 200 species: especially northern temperate, also South America, southeastern Asia, tropical Africa. [Backlund & Bremer 1997 Plant Syst Evol 207:225–254] Incl in Caprifoliaceae in TJM (1993), and possibly in future. —Scientific Editors: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged note: Incl in Caprifoliaceae in TJM (1993), and possibly in future according to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/APweb/welcome.html), which states, in part, "The whole lot might usefully be combined in a Caprifoliaceae s.l. (see also APG 2003), since similarities between the families are considerable and differences are mostly slight."

Key to Adoxaceae

SAMBUCUS ELDERBERRY
Generally shrub to small tree, deciduous; main trunk generally 0. Stem: pith large, spongy. Leaf: 1(2)-odd-pinnately compound; leaflets serrate. Inflorescence: panicle of cymes, terminal, generally ± dome-shaped. Flower: ovary chambers 3–5, ovules pendent; style ± 0, stigma lobes 3–5. Fruit: drupe, berry-like. Seed: 3–5.
20 species: temperate, subtropics some cultivated as ornamental. (Greek: for stringed instrument made from wood of genus) Toxic in quantity (except cooked fruits). [Bolli 1994 Diss Bot 223:1–256]

Key to Sambucus

S. racemosa L.
NATIVE
Plant 1–6 m. Leaf: leaflets 5–7, 4–16 cm, lanceolate to oblong-ovate, base generally asymmetric, tip ± acuminate. Inflorescence: 4–12 cm diam, ± dome-shaped; central axis generally dominant. Flower: petals often reflexed. Fruit: red or purple-black, not glaucous. [Online Interchange]

S. racemosa var. racemosa RED ELDERBERRY
NATIVE
Leaf: abaxially glabrous or stiff-hairy, especially on veins. Inflorescence: generally 6–12 cm diam. Fruit: red.
Moist places; < 3300 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, n Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, San Bernardino Mountains; North America, Europe, Asia. [Sambucus racemosa var. microbotrys (Rydb.) Kearney & Peebles] May–Jul [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 21 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Sambucus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=76057, accessed on Dec 21 2014

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click for enlargement Sambucus racemosa var. racemosa
See CalPhotos for additional images
2007 Neal Kramer

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Sambucus racemosa var. racemosa Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.