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Martin F. Wojciechowski, except as noted

Annual to tree. Leaf: generally alternate, generally compound, generally stipuled, generally entire, pinnately veined Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, umbel or head; or flowers 1–few in axils. Flower: generally bisexual, generally bilateral; hypanthium 0 or flat to tubular; sepals generally 5, generally fused; petals generally 5, free, fused, or lower 2 ± united into keel (see 3, Key to Groups, for banner, wings); stamens 10 or many (or [1], 5, 6, 7, 9), free or fused or 10 with 9 filaments at least partly fused, 1 (uppermost) free; pistil 1, ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, ovules 1–many, style, stigma 1. Fruit: legume, including a stalk-like base (above receptacle) or not. Seed: 1–many, often ± reniform, generally hard, smooth.
± 730 genera, 19400 species: worldwide; with grasses, requisite in agriculture, most natural ecosystems. Many cultivated, most importantly Arachis, peanut; Glycine, soybean; Phaseolus, beans; Medicago, alfalfa; Trifolium, clovers; many orns. [Lewis et al. (eds) 2005 Legumes of the World. RBG, Kew] Unless stated otherwise, fruit length including stalk-like base, number of 2° leaflets is per 1° leaflet. Upper suture of fruit adaxial, lower abaxial. Anthyllis vulneraria L. evidently a waif, a contaminant of legume seed from Europe. Laburnum anagyroides Medik., collected on Mount St. Helena in 1987, may be naturalized. Ceratonia siliqua L., carob tree (Group 2), differs from Gleditsia triacanthos L. in having evergreen (vs deciduous) leaves that are 1-pinnate (vs 1-pinnate on spurs on old stems, 2-pinnate on new stems) with 2–5(8) (vs 7–17) 1° leaflets, commonly cultivated, now naturalized in southern California. Aeschynomene rudis Benth. <Noxious weed>, Halimodendron halodendron (Pall.) Voss <Noxious weed> (possibly extirpated), Lens culinaris Medik. are agricultural weeds. Caragana arborescens Lam. only cultivated. Ononis alopecuroides L. <Noxious weed>, Sphaerophysa salsula (Pall.) DC. <Noxious weed> all evidently extirpated. Cercidium moved to Parkinsonia; Chamaecytisus to Cytisus; Psoralidium lanceolatum to Ladeania. —Scientific Editors: Martin F. Wojciechowski, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Fabaceae


Teresa Sholars

Annual to shrub; cotyledons generally petioled, withering early. Stem: generally erect. Leaf: palmately compound [or not], generally cauline; stipules fused to petiole; leaflets 3–17, generally oblanceolate, entire. Inflorescence: raceme, flowers spiraled or whorled, occasionally also in lower leaf axils; bracts generally deciduous. Flower: calyx 2-lipped, lobes entire or toothed, generally appendaged between; corolla blue, purple, white, or yellow, banner glabrous to densely hairy, centrally grooved, sides reflexed, wing tips ± fused, keel generally beaked; stamens 10, filaments fused, 5 long with short anthers, 5 short with long anthers; style brush-like. Fruit: dehiscent, generally oblong. Seed: 2–12, generally smooth.
± 220 species: especially western North America, western South America to eastern United States, also tropical South America, Mediterranean to western Asia, eastern tropical Africa; some cultivated for fodder, green manure, edible seed, ornamental. (Latin: wolf, from mistaken idea that plants rob soil of nutrients) Some (e.g., Lupinus arboreus, Lupinus latifolius, Lupinus leucophyllus) have alkaloids (especially in seeds, fruits, young herbage) TOXIC to livestock (especially sheep). [Barneby 1989 Intermountain Flora 3(B):237–267; Isely 1998 Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) US. M.L. Bean Museum, Brigham Young University] Inflorescence length excludes peduncle; some California species naturalized in eastern North America, South America, Australia, southern Africa.

Key to Lupinus

L. microcarpus Sims CHICK LUPINE
Annual 1–8 dm, sparsely to densely hairy; cotyledons disk-like, persistent, or leaving circular scar. Stem: clearly hollow, at least below. Leaf: petiole 3–15 cm; leaflets 5–11, generally 9, 10–50 mm, 2–12 mm wide, occasionally linear, adaxially glabrous. Inflorescence: 2–30 cm; peduncle 2–30 cm; pedicels 0.5–5 mm; bracts 3.5–12 mm, reflexed, persistent. Flower: 8–18 mm; calyx upper lip 2–6 mm, lower 5–10 mm, appendages generally 0; petals white to dark yellow, pink to dark rose, or lavender to purple, wings generally ciliate on upper (less often lower) margins near claw, keel upper margins ciliate, lower less so or glabrous near claw. Fruit: erect to spreading, often on 1 side of inflorescence, 1–1.5 cm, ± 10 mm wide, ovate, hairy. Seed: 2, tan to brown, generally mottled, wrinkled or smooth.
2n=48. Highly variable; varieties intergrade. [Online Interchange]

L. microcarpus var. microcarpus
Inflorescence: bract long-shaggy-hairy. Flower: calyx long-shaggy-hairy, appendages generally 0; petals generally pink to purple (± yellow or white), wings linear to lanceolate, withering, upper margins (rarely lower) generally ciliate near claw, keel lower margins generally glabrous near claw. Fruit: generally ± erect, generally on > 1 side of axis.
Abundant. Open or disturbed areas, occasionally seeded on roadbanks; < 1600 m. California Floristic Province, Modoc Plateau, w Mojave Desert; to British Columbia, Baja California, South America. [Lupinus densiflorus Benth. var. austrocollium C.P. Sm.; Lupinus densiflorus var. palustris (Kellogg) C.P. Sm.; Lupinus densiflorus var. persecundus C.P. Sm.; Lupinus ruber A. Heller; Lupinus subvexus C.P. Sm.; Lupinus subvexus var. insularis C.P. Sm.; Lupinus subvexus var. phoeniceus C.P. Sm.; Lupinus subvexus var. subvexus; Lupinus subvexus var. transmontanus C.P. Sm.] Mar–Jun [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 28 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Lupinus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 28 2015

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click for enlargement Lupinus microcarpus var. microcarpus
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2006 Steve Matson

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Lupinus microcarpus var. microcarpus Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.