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Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. [Bennett & Matthews 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1039–1051] High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Orobanchaceae
Annual to subshrub, green. Leaf: sessile, entire to dissected. Inflorescence: spike-like; bracts becoming shorter, wider, more lobed than leaves, mature tips generally cream to red or green. Flower: calyx unequally 4-lobed, colored like bract tips; corolla upper 2 lip lobes fused, beak-like, tip open, lower lip reduced, 3-toothed to -pouched; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; stigma entire to 2-lobed, generally exserted. Fruit: ± asymmetric. Seed: generally ± brown, attached at base; coat netted, net-like walls ladder-like or not.Key to Castilleja
± 200 species: especially western North America. (Domingo Castillejo, Spanish botanist, 1744–1793) [Tank & Olmstead 2008 Amer J Bot 95:608–625] Hybridization and polyploidy common. Biologically consistent taxa difficult to define. Castilleja chrymactis Pennell not in California, sole (1947) record a misidentified, incomplete specimen.
Unabridged references: [Chuang & Heckard 1991 Syst Bot 16:644–666]
Perennial herb 40–80 cm, few-branched, green or becoming ± purple, glabrous, to long-soft-hairy distally. Leaf: 30–60 mm, ± lanceolate, entire; tip acute. Inflorescence: 3–15 cm; bracts 15–35 mm, lobes 0–5, acute, bright red to ± yellow. Flower: calyx divided 2/3+ abaxially, 1/2–2/3 adaxially, ± 1/4 on sides, lobes acute; corolla beak ± = tube, yellow-green, adaxially puberulent, margins red, lower lip 1–2 mm, dark green, slightly exserted; stigma slightly 2-lobed. Seed: 1.5–2 mm; coat shallowly netted, loose-fitting, inner walls membranous, persistent. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Castilleja miniata Douglas ex Hook.
Stem: stout. Inflorescence: generally bright red (orange-red). Flower: calyx 15–30 mm; corolla 20–40 mm. Fruit: 10–12 mm.
2n=24,48,72,96,120. Common. Wet montane meadows, streambanks; (350)1500–3500 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, c Central Coast, Outer South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California, Great Basin Floristic Province. [Castilleja oblongifolia A. Gray] If recognized taxonomically, plants in lowland southern Outer North Coast Ranges (Pitkin Marsh, Sonoma Co., ± 60 m) with yellow inflorescence assignable to Castilleja uliginosa Eastw., Pitkin Marsh paintbrush. May–Sep [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Castilleja miniata Douglas ex Hook. subsp. miniata
Previous taxon: Castilleja miniata subsp. elata
Next taxon: Castilleja minor
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 10 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Castilleja, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=74956, accessed on Oct 10 2015
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|Castilleja miniata subsp. miniata|
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© 2006 George W. Hartwell
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Castilleja miniata subsp. miniata|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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