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RANUNCULACEAE BUTTERCUP FAMILY

Margriet Wetherwax & Dieter H. Wilken, family description, key to genera

Annual, perennial herb, woody vine [shrub], occasionally aquatic. Leaf: generally basal and cauline, alternate or opposite, simple or compound; petioles at base generally flat, occasionally sheathing or stipule-like. Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 3–6(20), free, early-deciduous or withering in fruit, generally green; petals 0–many, generally free; stamens generally 5–many, staminodes generally 0; pistils 1–many, ovary superior, chamber 1, style 0–1, generally ± persistent as beak, ovules 1–many. Fruit: achene, follicle, berry, ± utricle in Trautvetteria, in aggregate or not, 1–many-seeded.
± 60 genera, 1700 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate, tropical mountains; many ornamental (Adonis, Aquilegia, Clematis, Consolida, Delphinium, Helleborus, Nigella). some highly TOXIC (Aconitum, Actaea, Delphinium, Ranunculus). [Whittemore & Parfitt 1997 FNANM 3:85–271] Taxa of Isopyrum in TJM (1993) moved to Enemion; Kumlienia moved to Ranunculus. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Ranunculaceae

ACONITUM MONKSHOOD

Petra Foerster

Perennial herb from rhizome or tuber; roots fibrous or fleshy. Stem: 1–few, generally erect, generally simple. Leaf: palmately divided; segments 3–7, toothed to lobed; cauline gradually reduced distally on stem. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, terminal, bracted; pedicels ascending. Flower: bilateral; sepals 5, petal-like, lower 2, < others, pendent, lateral 2, round-reniform, upper 1 > others, hooded, sac-like, crescent-shaped to rounded-conic or cylindric, tip generally rounded to beaked; petals 2, covered by sepal hood, long-clawed, blades generally inflated, spurred; stamens 20–50; pistils generally 3. Fruit: follicle. Seed: deltoid, generally with small transverse wings, dark brown to black.
> 100 species: boreal arctic, temperate montane to alpine North America, Eurasia. (Greek: aconiton, of unknown origin). Most species highly TOXIC, causing death in livestock, humans. [Brink & Woods 1997 FNANM 3:191–195]

A. columbianum Nutt.
NATIVE
Plant 3–15(20) dm. Stem: erect, less generally reclining or twining above; bulblets 0 or in axils of leaves, inflorescence. Leaf: 5–15 cm wide; deeply 3–5 divided, segments wedge- to diamond-shaped, toothed to irregularly cut or lobed distally. Inflorescence: open. Flower: sepals deep ± blue-purple to white or yellow-green, lower 7–15 mm, lanceolate to ovate, lateral 8–18 mm, ± round to reniform, upper 10–22(30) mm, 8–20(25) mm wide; petals blue to ± white. Fruit: glabrous to puberulent, glandular or not. [Online Interchange]

Key to Aconitum columbianum

A. columbianum subsp. columbianum
NATIVE

2n=16,18. Streambanks, moist areas, meadows, conifer forest; 300–3500 m. Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, n East of Sierra Nevada; to British Columbia, South Dakota, New Mexico, northern Mexico, also Iowa, Wisconsin, Ohio, New York. [Aconitum geranioides Greene; Aconitum leibergii Greene] Jul–Sep [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Aconitum columbianum
Next taxon: Aconitum columbianum subsp. viviparum

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Aconitum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=74903, accessed on Oct 22 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Aconitum columbianum subsp. columbianum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.