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ORCHIDACEAE ORCHID FAMILY

Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings, except as noted

Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other plants], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves ± reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1–many, basal to cauline, linear to ± round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1–many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
± 800 genera, ± 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. [Romero-Gonzalez et al. 2002 FNANM 26:490–651] Platanthera may be paraphyletic without inclusion of Piperia (Bateman et al. 2009 Ann Bot 104:431–445); study needed. —Scientific Editors: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Luer 1975 Orchids US and Can, NY Bot Garden; Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids of California. Cornell Univ.]

Key to Orchidaceae

PIPERIA PIPERIA

James D. Ackerman & Robert Lauri

Plant 10–130 cm; tubers, 1–4 cm, generally ± round; stem bracts lance-linear to ovate. Leaf: at flower 0 or ± basal, not in rosette, 2–5, linear to widely oblanceolate. Inflorescence: spike or raceme, generally cylindric, flowers not in spiral; flower bract generally < flower. Flower: fragrance, when present, generally at night; perianth white to green; sepals generally 2–5 mm, 1–2 mm wide, 1-veined, upper pointed forward to erect, lower free, spreading to reflexed; lateral petals ± = sepals, spreading to erect, lip spurred, pointed forward, down (or upcurved); column < lip; ovary inferior, generally twisted 180°. Fruit: ascending to erect.
10 species: North America. (Charles V. Piper, American botanist, 1867–1926) [Ackerman & Morgan 2002 FNANM 26:571–577] Some species difficult to separate.
Unabridged references: [Morgan & Ackerman 1990 Lindleyana 5: 205–211]

Key to Piperia

P. elegans (Lindl.) Rydb.
NATIVE
Inflorescence: 3–40 cm, generally dense in full sun, open in shade. Flower: sepals white, midvein dark green, upper ± erect; lateral petals spreading to erect, ovate to lance-oblong, white to pale green, base or midvein green, white margins ± equal, lip 2.5–7 mm, ± lanceolate, ± curved downward, spur pointed down.
n=21. [Online Interchange]

P. elegans subsp. elegans COAST PIPERIA, ELEGANT PIPERIA
NATIVE
Plant 12–73(100) cm. Leaf: basal 6–30(38) cm, 10–75(90) mm wide. Flower: fragrance musky; lateral petals white to pale green, base or midvein green, lip white to pale green, spur 7–14 mm.
n=21. Generally dry, open sites, scrub, conifer forest; < 500 m. North Coast, w Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area; to British Columbia. May–Sep [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Piperia elegans subsp. decurtata
Next taxon: Piperia elongata

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 21 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Piperia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=74709, accessed on Oct 21 2014

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click for enlargement Piperia elegans subsp. elegans
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2004 Dean Wm. Taylor

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Piperia elegans subsp. elegans Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.