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Perennial herb, glabrous; monoecious; rhizomes or stolons long; colonial, in wet soil to aquatic. Stem: aerial stem 1, ± cylindric. Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate, 2-ranked, spongy; sheath open; ligule 0; blade ± linear. Inflorescence: spike-like or of spheric, unisexual heads; staminate flowers or heads distal to pistillate ones. Flower: small, densely-packed. Staminate flower: filaments fused proximally. Pistillate flower: pistil 1, ovary superior, ovules 1–2(4). Fruit: follicle, splitting in water, or drupe-like.
2 genera, ± 32 species: worldwide. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Typhaceae
Plants generally submerged except inflorescence, or vegetative when all-submerged (emergent to ± terrestrial); rhizomes, stolons slender. Stem: unbranched proximal to inflorescence. Leaf: blade flat to convex, 3-sided, or abaxially keeled. Inflorescence: heads axillary and terminal, 2–60+; bracts leaf-like, distal reduced. Staminate flower: stamens 2–8. Pistillate flower: ovary chambers 1–2(4), stigmas generally 1(2–4). Fruit: drupe-like, spongy; perianth parts attached, style and generally stigmas persistent as beak; floating, water-dispersed.Key to Sparganium
± 17 species: northern temperate, western Pacific. (Probably Greek: swaddling band, for strap-shaped leaves) [Kaul 2000 FNANM 22:271–277] Fruit head diam including fruit beaks; fruit body lengths except beak, stalk-like base; beak lengths including stigmas.
Unabridged references: [Cook & Nicholls 1986 Bot Helv 96:213–267, 1987 Bot Helv 97:1–44]
Plants robust, erect, emergent to ± terrestrial, not aquatic, to ± 2.5 m. Leaf: blades thick to thin, 3-angled proximally, flat or keeled distally. Inflorescence: main axis branches (0)1–4, heads >= 2 per branch; staminate heads ± 10–60; pistillate heads (1)2–8, 1.5–3 cm diam in fruit. Flower: perianth parts dark-thickened distally; stigmas > 1 on 5–100% of pistillate flowers, 3–4 mm. Fruit: body 5–9 mm, 3–7 mm wide, obconic, 3–6-angled, base not stalk-like, tip ± truncate to hemispheric, beak 1–4 mm.
2n=30. Varieties intergrade where distributions overlap. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Closely related to variable Old World Sparganium erectum sensu lato. Expanded author citation: Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. ex A. Gray
Plants to ± 1.5(2.5) m. Leaf: firm; at least distal blades proximally thick, 3-angled. Inflorescence: pistillate heads 2–3 cm diam in fruit. Flower: stigmas 2(3–4) on ± (40)60–100% of pistillate flowers. Fruit: body 8–9 mm, 5–7 mm wide, distally ± truncate to low-rounded.
Marshes, lakes, ponds, along streams; < 2400 m. North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, n High Sierra Nevada, San Joaquin Valley, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, Modoc Plateau; temperate and low-latitude boreal North America. [Sparganium eurycarpum subsp. eurycarpum] Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. ex A. Gray subsp. eurycarpum]
Unabridged note: Typification of Sparganium californicum Greene (Cook and Nicholls op. cit.) placed Sparganium californicum in synonymy under Sparganium eurycarpum subsp. eurycarpum. However, this typification remains questionable and another possible holotype cannot be unequivocally determined. Expanded author citation: Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. ex A. Gray var. eurycarpum
Previous taxon: Sparganium eurycarpum
Next taxon: Sparganium eurycarpum var. greenei
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Aug 1 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Sparganium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=73845, accessed on Aug 1 2014
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