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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Family description, key to genera by Thomas J. Rosatti; treatment of genera by James Henrickson, except as noted

Perennial herb to tree [vine], hairs 0 or peltate or not; rarely dioecious. Leaf: simple to odd-pinnately compound, alternate or generally opposite, deciduous or evergreen; stipules 0. Inflorescence: various; flowers >= 1. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; calyx generally minute (0), tube cup-shaped, lobes 4–15; petals (0)4–6(8), generally fused; nectar disk often present; stamens (0)2(4–5), epipetalous; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers 2, each 2–4 ovuled, placenta axile, style 1, stigma generally 2-lobed. Fruit: drupe, capsule, or winged achene. Seed: 1 per chamber.
± 25 genera, 900 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated for ornamental (Forsythia; Jasminum, jasmine; Ligustrum, privet; Syringa, lilac) or food (Olea, olive). [Lee et al. 2007 Molec Biol Evol 24:1161–1180] —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Jensen et al. 2002 Phytochemisty 60:213–231; Kim & Jansen 1998 Amer J Bot 85(6): Suppl. 139; Wallander & Albert 2000 Amer J Bot 87(12):1827–1841]

Key to Oleaceae


Timothy Chumley

Perennial herb to shrub. Leaf: simple, opposite or alternate, sessile or short-petioled, entire to lobed, prominently 1-veined below. Inflorescence: axillary cluster or terminal compound cyme. Flower: bisexual; calyx persistent, lobes (4)5–10(12), ± linear; corolla ± rotate or funnel-shaped, lobes (4)5(8); style slender, stigma head-like, ± 2-lobed. Fruit: papery capsule, deeply 2-lobed to near base. Seed: 2–4[8].
± 23 species: America, southern Africa. (Greek: gift of force, for sustenance provided to horses of Humboldt and Bonpland in Mexico) [Chumley 2007 Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ Texas, Austin]
Unabridged references: [Turner 1991 Phytologia 712:340–356; Steyermark 1932 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 19:87–176]

Key to Menodora

M. scabra A. Gray ROUGH MENODORA
Perennial herb to subshrub, broom-like, (1.5)2–4(5) dm. Stem: 2–many from woody base, ascending to erect, angled in ×-section, ± glabrous to densely scabrous, unarmed. Leaf: basal-most 2–4 nodes opposite, becoming alternate distally, grading into alternate leaf-like bracts in inflorescence, sessile or ± petioled, (3)10–45(60) mm, linear to ovate or obovate, ± glabrous to scabrous. Inflorescence: terminal, compound cyme. Flower: calyx generally densely scabrous, lobes (4)5–10(12), (1)2.6–5(10) mm, linear; corolla opening in evening, often scented, yellow, generally red in bud, tube 3–6 mm, lobes (4)5–6, (4)5–8(10) mm, oblong or obovate; anthers yellow; stigma exserted. Fruit: circumscissile, (4)5–7(8) mm, glabrous. Seed: generally 4, 4–6 mm, obovate, generally 3-sided in ×-section, spongy; seed coat deeply netted.
2n=22,44. [Online Interchange]

M. scabra var. scabra
Stem: 1–2.8 dm, ascending to erect, ± scabrous; generally branching throughout. Leaf: narrowly lanceolate or oblanceolate (linear), < 4 × longer than wide, generally > 2/3 internode, ± uniform in size proximal to inflorescence, generally scabrous. Flower: calyx lobes (8)9–10(12).
Rocky or sandy soils, desert scrub, woodland; 1000–1800 m. eastern Desert Mountains (Clark, Eagle, New York mtns); to New Mexico, northern Mexico. May–Jun [Online Interchange] {CNPS listed}

Previous taxon: Menodora scabra var. glabrescens
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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Menodora, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Menodora scabra var. scabra Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.