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Key to families | Table of families and genera
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Perennial herb, shrub, [tree], generally rhizomed, caudexed or not, glabrous, glaucous, or hairy. Stem: spreading to erect, branched or not. Leaf: simple, 1–3-ternate, or pinnately compound, basal and cauline, generally alternate, deciduous or evergreen, petioled, stipuled. Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, or panicle, scapose, terminal, or axillary. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 6–18 or 0, generally in whorls of 3; petals generally 6, in 2 whorls of 3, or 0; stamens 6–12(13), free or fused at base, in 2 whorls or not, anthers dehiscent by flap-like valves or longitudinal slits; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovules generally 1–10, style 1 or 0, stigma flat or spheric. Fruit: berry, capsule, achene [follicle].
16 genera, ± 670 species: temperate, tropics worldwide; some cultivated (Berberis, Epimedium, Nandina (heavenly bamboo), Vancouveria). [Wang 2007 Syst Bot 32:731–742] Lower sepals sometimes called "bracteoles", inner petals "staminodes". —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Ernst 1964 J Arnold Arbor 45:1–35]
Key to Berberidaceae
Shrub, generally rhizomed. Stem: spreading to erect, branched, spiny or not, vine-like or not; inner bark, wood generally bright yellow; over-wintering bud scales deciduous or not. Leaf: simple or pinnately compound, cauline, alternate, generally leathery, generally persistent; leaflets generally 3–11, ± round to lanceolate, generally spine-toothed. Inflorescence: raceme, axillary or terminal. Flower: sepals 9 in 3 whorls of 3; petals 6 in 2 whorls of 3, bases generally glandular; stamens 6; ovules 2–9, stigma ± spheric. Fruit: berry, spheric to elliptic, generally purple-black.Key to Berberis
± 600 species: temperate worldwide. (Latin: ancient Arabic name for barberry) Roots often TOXIC: spines may inject fungal spores into skin. [Kim 2004 J Plant Res 117:175–182] Contact with filament causes stamen to snap inward, possibly to deposit pollen on pollinator.
Unabridged references: [Moran 1982 Phytologia 52:221–226, for relationship between Berberis, Mahonia.]
Stem: spreading to erect, 0.1–2 m; bud scales generally deciduous. Leaf: cauline, not crowded, 8–24 cm; petiole generally 3–6 cm; leaflets 5–9, terminal 2–7.5 cm, 1.5–4.5 cm wide, ± round to elliptic, ± flat to strongly wavy, base ± lobed to wedge-shaped, tip acute to obtuse (except tooth), margin serrate, spines 6–24(40) per side, 1–5 mm. Inflorescence: 3–6 cm, dense; axis internodes 2–4 mm in flower, fruit. Fruit: 4–7 mm diam, ovoid to obovoid, glaucous, blue to purple. Seed: 4–5 mm. Varieties intergrade, need study; abaxial papillae on leaves evidently of no taxonomic value. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Presence or absence of abaxial papillae on leaves varies within, between populations and does not appear to provide a reliable taxonomic character.
Stem: ascending to erect, generally 1–2 m. Leaf: 10–24 cm; petiole 1–2.5(5) cm; leaflets generally 5–9, 3–7.5 cm, 2–4.5 cm wide, ovate to elliptic, ± flat, generally shiny adaxially, base oblique to obtuse, spines 12–24 per side, 1–2 mm. Fruit: ovoid to obovoid, dark blue.
2n=28. Conifer forest; 400–2300 m. Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, San Gabriel Mountains, Modoc Plateau; to British Columbia. [Berberis piperiana (Abrams) McMinn] Mar–Jun [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Berberis aquifolium
Next taxon: Berberis aquifolium var. dictyota
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 11 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Berberis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=71483, accessed on Mar 11 2014
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