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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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J. Robert Haller, Nancy J. Vivrette, & James R. Griffin, except as noted

Shrub, tree, evergreen; monoecious. Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing ± 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; base decurrent, woody or not, persistent several years. Pollen cone: generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous. Seed cone: generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract. Seed: 2, on scale base adaxially.
10 genera, 193 species: generally northern hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > 1/2 of world's timber. —Scientific Editors: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Thieret 1993 FNANM 2:352–398]

Key to Pinaceae

Stem: young bark smooth, with resin blisters, mature bark generally thick, deeply furrowed; young branches appearing whorled; twig without persistent, peg-like leaf bases, glabrous or hairy; leaf scars smooth, ± round to elliptic; bud generally ± spheric, generally < 1 cm, ± resinous. Leaf: 2–9 cm, sessile, twisted at base to be 2-ranked, often upcurved on upper twigs, generally ± flat; adaxially with 2 ± faint, longitudinal, ± white bands or not, midrib depressed or not; abaxially with 2 ± white bands or not, midrib ridge-like or not Seed cone: erect, < 23 cm, maturing 1st year; stalk generally 0; bracts, scales deciduous; bract included or exserted, ± free from scale; axis persistent on stem, ultimately falling. Seed: with obvious resin deposits on surface; wing < 2.5 cm.
39 species: northern hemisphere. (Latin: silver fir) [Xiang et al. 2009 Taxon 58:141–152]
Unabridged references: [Vasek 1985 Madroño 32:65–77]

Key to Abies

A. magnifica A. Murray bis CALIFORNIA RED FIR
Stem: trunk < 57 m, < 2.5 m wide; mature crown ± cylindric, top rounded; bark gray, with resin blisters in youth, deeply furrowed, with dark ± red ridges in age; twig hairy 1st year; bud ± resinous. Leaf: < 3.5 cm, ± 3–4-angled; adaxially with ± white bands; tip notched or blunt. Seed cone: 12–23 cm; bract included or ± exserted. [Online Interchange]

A. magnifica var. magnifica
Cotyledons 6–13. Seed cone: bract included.
Mixed-conifer to subalpine forests; 1200–2600 m. Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada; west-central Nevada. [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 28 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Abies, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 28 2015

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click for enlargement Abies magnifica var. magnifica
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Charles Webber © 1999 California Academy of Sciences

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Abies magnifica var. magnifica Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.