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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to tree.
Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound.
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1–many in generally ± cyme-like cluster; each head generally with ± calyx-like involucre of 1–many series of phyllaries (involucral bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1–many per head.
Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into ± persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3–5; stamens 4–5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/ throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally ± 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing ± brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches.
Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) ( drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
± 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Fl and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in CA. Inula helenium L. not documented in CA. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Bahia; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. —Scientific Editors: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged note: Largest family of vascular plants in CA and of eudicots globally.
Key to Asteraceae
Annual to perennial herb ( subshrub).Key to Erigeron
Stem: generally erect.
Leaf: alternate, generally sessile, generally entire (toothed or lobed to ternately dissected).
Inflorescence: heads generally radiate (discoid, disciform), 1–few (many), peduncled; inflorescence generally ± flat-topped ( raceme- to panicle-like); involucre urn- to bell-shaped or generally hemispheric; phyllaries linear to narrowly lanceolate, in 2–several series, ± equal to strongly graduated, generally ascending or erect in flower, generally green, spreading when pressed, reflexed when dry; receptacle flat to steeply conic, smooth to shallowly pitted, epaleate.
Ray or pistillate flower: (0)10–generally many; ray generally narrow, generally white or pink to lavender or blue-purple (yellow), generally spreading when fresh, often coiled or reflexed when dry.
Disk flower: generally many; corolla generally narrowly funnel-shaped, yellow; anther tip ± lanceolate; style tips 0.1–0.8 mm, ± triangular.
Fruit: generally 0.5–3 mm, generally ± oblong, compressed to ± cylindric, generally 2-ribbed, generally sparsely hairy; pappus (0) generally double, outer of short bristles, narrow scales, or a short crown, inner of 6–50 long bristles.
± 375 species: worldwide. (Greek: early old age) [Nesom 2006 FNANM 20:256–348] Erigeron concinnus (Hook. & Arn.) Torr. & A. Gray var. condensatus D.C. Eaton, Erigeron disparipilus Cronquist, and Erigeron lobata A. Nelson apparently not in CA.
Unabridged references: [Noyes 2000 Plant Syst Evol 220:93–114]
Perennial 9–35 cm, from taproot and simple caudex.
Stem: decumbent to erect, generally few-branched near mid- stem, ± purple, appressed- to ± spreading-hairy.
Leaf: basal present at flower, 5–15 cm, linear to spoon-shaped, generally 1-veined; cauline little reduced, much reduced or 0 distally in Erigeron lassenianus var. deficiens, short-rough- to long-soft hairy, often minutely glandular.
Inflorescence: heads radiate or discoid, 1–8, long-peduncled; involucre 4–5.5 mm, 6–10(12) mm diam; phyllaries ± equal, spreading-hairy, densely minutely glandular.
Ray flower: (0)14–36; ray 5–8 mm, white to pink or lavender, slightly coiled when dry.
Fruit: pappus bristles 12–24. [Online Interchange]
Ray flower: well developed.
2n=18. Open sites, gravelly and brushy flats, mixed conifer forest, generally in serpentine or glacial moraine; 600–2300 m. Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada.
Previous taxon: Erigeron lassenianus var. deficiens
Next taxon: Erigeron linearis
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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