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OROBANCHACEAE BROOMRAPE FAMILY

Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. [Bennett & Matthews 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1039–1051] High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Orobanchaceae

CASTILLEJA PAINTBRUSH, OWL'S-CLOVER

Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual to subshrub, green. Leaf: sessile, entire to dissected. Inflorescence: spike-like; bracts becoming shorter, wider, more lobed than leaves, mature tips generally cream to red or green. Flower: calyx unequally 4-lobed, colored like bract tips; corolla upper 2 lip lobes fused, beak-like, tip open, lower lip reduced, 3-toothed to -pouched; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; stigma entire to 2-lobed, generally exserted. Fruit: ± asymmetric. Seed: generally ± brown, attached at base; coat netted, net-like walls ladder-like or not.
± 200 species: especially western North America. (Domingo Castillejo, Spanish botanist, 1744–1793) [Tank & Olmstead 2008 Amer J Bot 95:608–625] Hybridization and polyploidy common. Biologically consistent taxa difficult to define. Castilleja chrymactis Pennell not in California, sole (1947) record a misidentified, incomplete specimen.
Unabridged references: [Chuang & Heckard 1991 Syst Bot 16:644–666]

Key to Castilleja

C. affinis Hook. & Arn.
NATIVE
Perennial herb 15–60 cm, few-branched, green becoming ± purple, ± glabrous to bristly-puberulent, generally nonglandular. Leaf: linear to lanceolate; lobes 0–5, tips ± rounded. Inflorescence: 5–30 cm; bracts 17–25 mm, lobes 0–5. Flower: calyx divided ± 1/3–1/2 abaxially and adaxially, ± 1/4–1/3 on sides, long-nonglandular- and short-glandular-hairy, lobes acute to obtuse, generally not curved upward; corolla beak ± 1–1.5 × tube, adaxially generally shaggy-hairy, margins ± red or ± yellow, lower lip 2–3 mm, green to dark purple; stigma slightly notched. Fruit: 10–15 mm. Seed: 1.5–2 mm; coat deeply netted, tight-fitting, most walls ladder-like. Many forms, some geographically isolated; hybridizes with other species. [Online Interchange]

C. affinis subsp. affinis
NATIVE
Plant ± bristly, occasionally some hairs branched. Leaf: 30–80 mm, ± lanceolate; lobes 0–5. Inflorescence: 30–50 mm wide, generally bright red to orange-red (yellow). Flower: calyx 20–35 mm; corolla 25–40 mm.
2n=48,72,96. Chaparral, coastal scrub; < 1800 m. c North Coast (Mendocino Co.), Outer North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, n Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Western California, Southwestern California; Baja California. Coastal plants tend to have ± fleshy leaves, inflated calyx. Dune plants of southern Central Coast, northern South Coast with some branched hairs may represent past hybridization with diploid Castilleja mollis of northern Channel Islands. Mar–Jun [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 1 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Castilleja, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=70068, accessed on Oct 1 2014

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click for enlargement Castilleja affinis subsp. affinis
See CalPhotos for additional images
1997 Christopher L. Christie

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Castilleja affinis subsp. affinis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.