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JUNCAGINACEAE ARROW-GRASS FAMILY

David J. Keil

Annual, perennial herb, rhizomed or dense-tufted, terrestrial or aquatic. Leaf: generally ± basal, alternate, ± flat to narrow-cylindric; sheath open, generally liguled. Inflorescence: spike or generally ± scapose raceme; bracts 0. Flower: generally bisexual; perianth parts generally 6 in 2 whorls (0, 1) [3, 4], free, ± green or tinged ± red-purple; stamens 0, 1, 3, or 6, filaments short, ± fused to perianth; pistil 1, carpels 1, 6 [3, 4], ± fused, separating in fruit [or not], each with 1 chamber and 1 ovule or 3 carpels fertile, 3 sterile, placentas basal, stigmas generally ± sessile. Fruit: achene or generally mericarps.
3 genera, 30 species: temperate, circumboreal, Australia, southern Africa, South America. [Haynes & Hellquist 2000 FNANM 22:43–46; von Mering & Kadereit 2010 in Seberg (ed.), Diversity, Phylogeny, and Evolution in the Monocotyledons, Aarhus Univ Press] Lilaea included in Triglochin. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [von Mering, S., Kadereit, J.W. (2010): Phylogeny, systematics and recircumscription of Juncaginaceae - a cosmopolitan wetland family. In Seberg, O. (ed.), Diversity, Phylogeny, and Evolution in the Monocotyledons: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on the Comparative Biology of the Monocotyledons. Aarhus University Press.]

TRIGLOCHIN ARROW-GRASS
Plant ± glabrous. Leaf: basal, ± tufted; sheath membranous; ligule tip entire to 2-lobed [0]. Flower: perianth parts generally adaxially concave; anthers ± sessile; stigma papillate or ± plumose. Fruit: achene or generally 3, 6 mericarps. Seed: 1, linear, ± flat or angled.
± 20 species: temperate, circumboreal, Australia, southern Africa, South America. (Greek: 3 points, from fruits of some) TOXIC when fresh, from cyanogenic compounds.

Key to Triglochin

T. concinna Burtt Davy
NATIVE
Perennial herb 1–6 dm, loose-tufted to mat-forming; rhizomes often creeping, ± slender. Leaf: 5–30 cm, generally 1–2 mm wide, ± round or semicircular in ×-section; ligule 0.5–1.5 mm, tip deep-2-lobed. Inflorescence: aerial raceme, >= leaves; pedicels 3–7 mm in fruit, ascending. Flower: perianth parts generally 6, 1–2 mm; stamens generally 6; fertile carpels 6. Fruit: mericarps 6, 3–6(7) mm, fully separating, abaxially smooth or weak-ridged. Some authors merge Triglochin concinna, Triglochin maritima, but plants of northern Central Coast very different in habit, stature, and grow together without intergrading. Some plants of interior may be more difficult to distinguish from Triglochin maritima, need study. [Online Interchange]

T. concinna var. debilis (M.E. Jones) J.T. Howell
NATIVE
Plant (1)3–5(6) dm. Inflorescence: generally >> leaves.
2n=96. Alkaline meadows, seeps, mudflats, stream and lake margins; 400–2500 m. ne Klamath Ranges, n High Cascade Range, s High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province, Mojave Desert; circumboreal, South America. Mar–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 30 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Triglochin, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=67359, accessed on Sep 30 2014

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click for enlargement Triglochin concinna var. debilis
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2007 Steve Matson

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Triglochin concinna var. debilis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.