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FABACEAE (Leguminosae) LEGUME FAMILY

Martin F. Wojciechowski, except as noted

Annual to tree. Leaf: generally alternate, generally compound, generally stipuled, generally entire, pinnately veined Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, umbel or head; or flowers 1–few in axils. Flower: generally bisexual, generally bilateral; hypanthium 0 or flat to tubular; sepals generally 5, generally fused; petals generally 5, free, fused, or lower 2 ± united into keel (see 3, Key to Groups, for banner, wings); stamens 10 or many (or [1], 5, 6, 7, 9), free or fused or 10 with 9 filaments at least partly fused, 1 (uppermost) free; pistil 1, ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, ovules 1–many, style, stigma 1. Fruit: legume, including a stalk-like base (above receptacle) or not. Seed: 1–many, often ± reniform, generally hard, smooth.
± 730 genera, 19400 species: worldwide; with grasses, requisite in agriculture, most natural ecosystems. Many cultivated, most importantly Arachis, peanut; Glycine, soybean; Phaseolus, beans; Medicago, alfalfa; Trifolium, clovers; many orns. [Lewis et al. (eds) 2005 Legumes of the World. RBG, Kew] Unless stated otherwise, fruit length including stalk-like base, number of 2° leaflets is per 1° leaflet. Upper suture of fruit adaxial, lower abaxial. Anthyllis vulneraria L. evidently a waif, a contaminant of legume seed from Europe. Laburnum anagyroides Medik., collected on Mount St. Helena in 1987, may be naturalized. Ceratonia siliqua L., carob tree (Group 2), differs from Gleditsia triacanthos L. in having evergreen (vs deciduous) leaves that are 1-pinnate (vs 1-pinnate on spurs on old stems, 2-pinnate on new stems) with 2–5(8) (vs 7–17) 1° leaflets, commonly cultivated, now naturalized in southern California. Aeschynomene rudis Benth. <Noxious weed>, Halimodendron halodendron (Pall.) Voss <Noxious weed> (possibly extirpated), Lens culinaris Medik. are agricultural weeds. Caragana arborescens Lam. only cultivated. Ononis alopecuroides L. <Noxious weed>, Sphaerophysa salsula (Pall.) DC. <Noxious weed> all evidently extirpated. Cercidium moved to Parkinsonia; Chamaecytisus to Cytisus; Psoralidium lanceolatum to Ladeania. —Scientific Editors: Martin F. Wojciechowski, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Fabaceae

TRIFOLIUM CLOVER

Michael A. Vincent & Duane Isely

Annual, perennial herb, unarmed. Leaf: generally palmately compound; stipules conspicuous, partly fused to petiole, generally papery or membranous; leaflets generally 3, occasionally 5–9, ± toothed or wavy. Inflorescence: raceme (generally umbel-like), head, or spike, axillary or terminal, generally many-flowered, generally involucred, generally peduncled; inflorescence bracts 0 or forming vestigial ring or involucre; flower bracts present or not. Flower: generally spreading to erect, generally becoming reflexed; corolla generally purple to pale lavender, occasionally yellow, persistent after flower; 9 filaments fused, 1 free. Fruit: generally indehiscent but generally breaking, short, plump, generally enclosed in corolla; base generally stalk-like. Seed: 1–6.
± 300 species: temps, tropical mountains, northern hemisphere, South America, Africa; foodplant for lepidopterans, cultivated as green manure in crop rotation, fodder. (Latin: 3 leaves) [Ellison et al. 2006 Molec Phylogen Evol 39:688–705; Vincent 2009 Madroño 56:208]
Unabridged references: [Gillett 1980 Canad J Bot 58:1425–1448; Zohary & Heller 1984 Genus Trifolium]

Key to Trifolium

T. depauperatum Desv.
NATIVE
Annual, generally small, glabrous. Stem: decumbent to erect. Leaf: cauline; lower stipules oblong, upper bristle-tipped; leaflets 0.5–2 cm, narrowly oblong to obovate, entire or toothed, occasionally lobed, tip generally truncate. Inflorescence: head-like, 0.5–1 cm wide, 3–many-flowered. Flower: calyx glabrous; corolla 4.5–9 mm, pink-purple, white-tipped, banner inflated in fruit. Fruit: stalk-like base 0 to short; style generally persistent.
2n=16. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Trifolium depauperatum var. depauperatum, Trifolium depauperatum var. truncatum predominant; study needed.

T. depauperatum var. truncatum (Greene) Isely TRUNCATE SACK CLOVER
NATIVE
Leaf: leaflet tip generally truncate, toothed. Inflorescence: involucre bracts ± free, 2–2.5 mm, margins ± membranous. Flower: calyx 2.5–3 mm; corolla 4.5–7.5 mm. Fruit: 2–3 mm, ± = style, ovate or obovate; stalk-like base 0.5–1 mm. Seed: 1–2.
Grassy flats, disturbed slopes, openings in woodland; < 800 m. North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Great Central Valley, Central Western California, South Coast, Channel Islands, Peninsular Ranges. Apr–Jun [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Trifolium depauperatum var. truncatum (Greene) J.S. Martin ex Isely

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 24 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Trifolium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=67272, accessed on Oct 24 2014

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click for enlargement Trifolium depauperatum var. truncatum
See CalPhotos for additional images
2004 Carol W. Witham

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Trifolium depauperatum var. truncatum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.