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SAXIFRAGACEAE SAXIFRAGE FAMILY

Michael S. Park & Patrick E. Elvander, except as noted

Perennial herb from caudex or rhizome, generally ± hairy. Stem: often ± leafy on proximal 1/2, rarely trailing and leafy throughout. Leaf: generally simple, basal and/or cauline, generally alternate, generally petioled; veins ± palmate. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, generally ± scapose. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; hypanthium free to ± fused to ovary; calyx lobes generally 5; petals generally 5, free, generally clawed, generally white; stamens 3, [4], 5, 8, or 10; pistils 1 (carpels ± fused, ovary lobed, chambers 1 or 2, placentas generally 2(3), axile or parietal or occasionally proximally axile and distally marginal in ovary lobes) or 2 (carpels free, placentas marginal), ovary nearly superior to inferior, occasionally more superior in fruit, styles generally 2(3). Fruit: capsule (generally 2(3)-beaked, valves generally 2(3), generally equal) or 2 follicles. Seed: generally many, small.
± 30 genera, 600 species: especially northern temperate, arctic, alpine; some cultivated (Bergenia, Darmera, Heuchera, Saxifraga, Tellima, Tolmiea). [Soltis et al. 2001 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 88:669–693; Okuyama et al. 2008 Molec Phylogen Evol 46:560–575] California Mitella moved to Mitellastra, Ozomelis, Pectiantia; Suksdorfia ranunculifolia to Hemieva. Parnassia moved to Parnassiaceae. —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Soltis 1988 Syst Bot 13:64–72]

Key to Saxifragaceae

TIARELLA SUGAR-SCOOP
Plant hairy, glands few; rhizome scaly; bulblets 0. Leaf: simple or compound, basal and cauline, distal reduced; stipules minute on cauline leaves, membranous, with marginal bristles; blade ovate, base cordate, lobes 3–5, ± deep, or leaflets 3, teeth sharp. Inflorescence: generally raceme-like panicle. Flower: hypanthium minute, free of ovary; petals thread-like; stamens 10; pistil 1, ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas 2, parietal. Fruit: capsule, valves unequal.
2 species: North America, Asia. (Greek: small tiara) [Kern 1966 Madroño 18:152–160]

T. trifoliata L. LACE FLOWER
NATIVE
Plant 15–40 cm. Leaf: stipules on basal leaves < 1 cm, on cauline leaves < 1 mm; petiole > blade. Inflorescence: glandular hairs dense. Flower: calyx lobes 1.5–2.5 mm; petals 3–4 mm. [Online Interchange]

Key to Tiarella trifoliata

T. trifoliata var. unifoliata (Hook.) Kurtz
NATIVE
Leaf: generally 9–12 cm wide; lobes ± deep, teeth generally round, tips sharp.
2n=14. Moist shady streambanks; < 2000 m. North Coast, Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, n High North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges/Central Coast (Big Sur River, Monterey Co.); to Alaska, eastern to Alberta, Montana. May–Aug [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Tiarella trifoliata var. trifoliata
Next taxon: Tolmiea

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Aug 1 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Tiarella, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=67161, accessed on Aug 1 2014

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click for enlargement Tiarella trifoliata var. unifoliata
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Charles Webber 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Bioregions in which Tiarella trifoliata var. unifoliata occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.