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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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Charles D. Bell, family description, key to genera

Subshrub to small tree or vine. Leaf: opposite, simple or compound; stipules generally 0. Flower: calyx tube fused to ovary, limb generally 5-lobed; corolla radial or bilateral, rotate to cylindric, generally 5-lobed; stamens generally 5, epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes; ovary inferior, 1–5-chambered, style 1. Fruit: berry, drupe.
5 genera, 220 species: especially northern temperate. [Backlund & Pyck 1998 Taxon 47:657–661] Linnaea moved to Linnaeaceae; Sambucus and Viburnum to Adoxaceae. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Caprifoliaceae


Charles D. Bell & Lauramay T. Dempster

Shrub. Stem: decumbent to erect, slender. Leaf: simple, deciduous, short-petioled; blade generally elliptic to round, some often ± lobed. Inflorescence: generally raceme, generally ± terminal, generally few-flowered; flower subtended by 2 fused bractlets. Flower: ± radial; hypanthium ± spheric; calyx with 5-toothed, persistent limb; corolla bell-shaped to ± salverform, generally 5-lobed, white or pink, often ± hairy inside; nectary glands [1]5, ± basal; stamens generally included; ovary chambers 4, styles generally included, stigma head-shaped. Fruit: drupe, generally berry-like, white to pink. Seed: 2 (1 per lateral ovary chamber), ± oblong, planoconvex.
± 10 species: North America, 1 in China. (Greek: to bear fruit together, berries borne in clusters)
Unabridged references: [Jones 1940 J Arnold Arbor 21:201 252]

Key to Symphoricarpos

S. rotundifolius A. Gray
Plant 6–12 dm, stiff, puberulent. Stem: old bark shredding. Leaf: blade 8–20 mm, abaxially paler, more prominently veined. Inflorescence: flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: calyx limb flaring, lobes deep, irregular, margin generally transparent; corolla 6–10 mm, narrowly bell-shaped, pink or white, ± hairy inside, lobes ± erect to ± spreading, ± 1/5–1/3 corolla; nectary glands 5, 1 below each corolla lobe; style glabrous. Fruit: 8–12 mm, ovoid. Seed: 4–6 mm. [Online Interchange]

S. rotundifolius var. parishii (Rydb.) Dempster
Plant trailing, 3–6 dm. Stem: branches often arched, tips rooting; twigs generally ± straight-hairy. Flower: corolla 6–9 mm, tube inside sparsely hairy throughout.
Slopes, ridges; 1100–3300 m. s High Sierra Nevada, Southwestern California, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert Mountains; New Mexico. [Symphoricarpos parishii Rydb.] Difficult to distinguish from Symphoricarpos rotundifolius var. rotundifolius in Mono Co. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 27 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Symphoricarpos, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 27 2015

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click for enlargement Symphoricarpos rotundifolius var. parishii
See CalPhotos for additional images
2005 Steve Matson

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Symphoricarpos rotundifolius var. parishii Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.