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TYPHACEAE CATTAIL FAMILY

S. Galen Smith

Perennial herb, glabrous; monoecious; rhizomes or stolons long; colonial, in wet soil to aquatic. Stem: aerial stem 1, ± cylindric. Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate, 2-ranked, spongy; sheath open; ligule 0; blade ± linear. Inflorescence: spike-like or of spheric, unisexual heads; staminate flowers or heads distal to pistillate ones. Flower: small, densely-packed. Staminate flower: filaments fused proximally. Pistillate flower: pistil 1, ovary superior, ovules 1–2(4). Fruit: follicle, splitting in water, or drupe-like.
2 genera, ± 32 species: worldwide. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Typhaceae

SPARGANIUM BUR-REED
Plants generally submerged except inflorescence, or vegetative when all-submerged (emergent to ± terrestrial); rhizomes, stolons slender. Stem: unbranched proximal to inflorescence. Leaf: blade flat to convex, 3-sided, or abaxially keeled. Inflorescence: heads axillary and terminal, 2–60+; bracts leaf-like, distal reduced. Staminate flower: stamens 2–8. Pistillate flower: ovary chambers 1–2(4), stigmas generally 1(2–4). Fruit: drupe-like, spongy; perianth parts attached, style and generally stigmas persistent as beak; floating, water-dispersed.
± 17 species: northern temperate, western Pacific. (Probably Greek: swaddling band, for strap-shaped leaves) [Kaul 2000 FNANM 22:271–277] Fruit head diam including fruit beaks; fruit body lengths except beak, stalk-like base; beak lengths including stigmas.
Unabridged references: [Cook & Nicholls 1986 Bot Helv 96:213–267, 1987 Bot Helv 97:1–44]

Key to Sparganium

S. eurycarpum A. Gray
NATIVE
Plants robust, erect, emergent to ± terrestrial, not aquatic, to ± 2.5 m. Leaf: blades thick to thin, 3-angled proximally, flat or keeled distally. Inflorescence: main axis branches (0)1–4, heads >= 2 per branch; staminate heads ± 10–60; pistillate heads (1)2–8, 1.5–3 cm diam in fruit. Flower: perianth parts dark-thickened distally; stigmas > 1 on 5–100% of pistillate flowers, 3–4 mm. Fruit: body 5–9 mm, 3–7 mm wide, obconic, 3–6-angled, base not stalk-like, tip ± truncate to hemispheric, beak 1–4 mm.
2n=30. Varieties intergrade where distributions overlap. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Closely related to variable Old World Sparganium erectum sensu lato. Expanded author citation: Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. ex A. Gray

S. eurycarpum var. greenei (Morong) Graebn.
NATIVE
Plants to ± 2.5 m. Leaf: blades 10–28 mm wide, proximally thin, 3-angled, generally ± flat when pressed. Inflorescence: pistillate heads 1.5–2.5 cm diam in fruit. Flower: stigmas 2 on ± 5–40% of pistillate flowers. Fruit: body 5–8 mm, 3–6 mm wide, distally rounded to generally tapered.
Generally coastal; < 150 m. North Coast, Central Coast, South Coast; to British Columbia. [Sparganium erectum subsp. stoloniferum (Graebn.) H. Hara] Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Sparganium erectum subsp. stoloniferum (Buch.-Ham. ex Graebn.) H. Hara; Sparganium greenei Morong]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 18 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Sparganium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=66594, accessed on Apr 18 2014

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Bioregions in which Sparganium eurycarpum var. greenei occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.