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RANUNCULACEAE BUTTERCUP FAMILY

Margriet Wetherwax & Dieter H. Wilken, family description, key to genera

Annual, perennial herb, woody vine [shrub], occasionally aquatic. Leaf: generally basal and cauline, alternate or opposite, simple or compound; petioles at base generally flat, occasionally sheathing or stipule-like. Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 3–6(20), free, early-deciduous or withering in fruit, generally green; petals 0–many, generally free; stamens generally 5–many, staminodes generally 0; pistils 1–many, ovary superior, chamber 1, style 0–1, generally ± persistent as beak, ovules 1–many. Fruit: achene, follicle, berry, ± utricle in Trautvetteria, in aggregate or not, 1–many-seeded.
± 60 genera, 1700 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate, tropical mountains; many ornamental (Adonis, Aquilegia, Clematis, Consolida, Delphinium, Helleborus, Nigella). some highly TOXIC (Aconitum, Actaea, Delphinium, Ranunculus). [Whittemore & Parfitt 1997 FNANM 3:85–271] Taxa of Isopyrum in TJM (1993) moved to Enemion; Kumlienia moved to Ranunculus. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Ranunculaceae

RANUNCULUS BUTTERCUP

Alan T. Whittemore

Annual, perennial herb, occasionally from stolons or caudices, terrestrial or aquatic; roots generally fibrous. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, generally reduced upward; petiole base flat, stipule-like or not; basal, proximal cauline petioles generally long; blades simple to dissected or compound, entire to toothed. Inflorescence: cyme, axillary or terminal, 1–few-flowered. Flower: sepals 3–5(6), generally early-deciduous, generally green to yellow or purple; petals 0–17[(150)], shiny, generally yellow, occasionally white or purple, nectaries near base, pocket-like or with flap-like scale; anthers yellow; pistils generally many. Fruit: achene, compressed or not, ± spheric, disk-like (width 3–15 × depth), or lenticular (width 1–2 × depth), beaked.
± 300 species: worldwide except lowland tropics; some ornamental. (Latin: small frog, from wet habitats)
Unabridged etymology: (Latin: diminutive of Rana, frog, from wet habitats)

Key to Ranunculus

R. occidentalis Nutt.
NATIVE
Perennial herb 10–60 cm, not rooting at nodes. Leaf: basal, proximal cauline 1.5–5.3 cm, 2.2–8 cm wide, widely ovate to semicircular or reniform; distal cauline reduced, deeply parted or compound. Flower: receptacle glabrous; sepals 5, reflexed 2–3 mm from base, 4–7(9) mm, 2–4 mm wide, early-deciduous; petals 5–6. Fruit: disk-like, wall thick, smooth. 3 other varieties, not in California. [Online Interchange]

R. occidentalis var. occidentalis
NATIVE
Erect to decumbent. Leaf: basal 3-parted or 1-ternate, ultimate segments oblong to elliptic, lanceolate, or oblanceolate, dentate. Flower: petals 5–10 mm, 3–6 mm wide. Fruit: body 2.6–3.6(4) mm, 1.8–3(3.2) mm wide, glabrous or bristly, beak (0.6)1–1.4 mm, curved, lanceolate.
Grassy slopes in meadows or open woodland; < 1500 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, Modoc Plateau; to British Columbia, Nevada. Mar–Jul [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Ranunculus occidentalis var. howellii
Next taxon: Ranunculus occidentalis var. ultramontanus

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 19 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Ranunculus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=64947, accessed on Sep 19 2014

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click for enlargement Ranunculus occidentalis var. occidentalis
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1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Ranunculus occidentalis var. occidentalis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.