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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
Annual (perennial herb), generally strigose to spreading-hairy; fibrous- to taprooted, staining red dye present or not. Stem: branched at base or above, < 5 dm. Leaf: cauline or basal and cauline, 0.5–10 cm, generally smaller tipward, linear to oblanceolate. Inflorescence: raceme- or spike-like cymes, coiled in bud, generally elongate in fruit; bracts 0–many. Flower: calyx lobes fused below middle, 2–10 mm in fruit; corolla rotate to funnel-shaped or cylindric, white or white with yellow area, tube generally ± yellow inside, limb 1–12 mm diam, appendages prominent to minute, white to yellow. Fruit: nutlets generally 4, ± ovate (triangular to ± lanceolate), rarely on narrow stalk or short peg, variously roughened, abaxially generally with central ridge, lateral ridges, cross-ribs, generally tubercled, occasionally prickly or bristly; adaxially keeled above attachment scar, scar on side generally near middle to base, sometimes on bottom or oblique (on angle between side and bottom), generally raised.Key to Plagiobothrys
± 65 species: temperate western North America, western South America, northeastern Asia, Australia. (Greek: sideways pit, from position of nutlet attachment scar) Nutlet characters in key generally best for 3 nutlets farthest from stem; yellow on corolla changes to white after pollination.
Unabridged references: [Horn 2000 Ph.D. Dissertation Univ Munich; Johnston 1932 Contr Arnold Arboretum 3:1–102]
Unabridged note: Fully mature nutlets needed for identification; in many species nutlet closest to stem often more firmly attached, larger, differently textured, and with completely different attachment scar than other 3; nutlet characters used in key focus on 3 more loosely attached nutlets. Intergradation common in some species groups; reticulate speciation in genus; sect. Allocarya often treated as separate genus; many species need study. Corolla size can diminish markedly during flower period. Yellow corolla appendages and, if present, contrasting yellow corolla centers, change to white after successful pollination.
Annual, short-strigose. Stem: ascending to erect, 1–5 dm, often fleshy, ± hollow. Leaf: cauline, lower 2–11 cm, hairs ± blister-based. Inflorescence: ± open, bracts below middle; pedicels 0–3 mm, generally solid, ± elongating. Flower: calyx 3 mm, 5–8 mm in fruit, narrow, lobes spreading to erect, linear to lanceolate, midveins thick; corolla limb 2–12 mm diam, appendages yellow. Fruit: nutlet 1–2 mm, lanceolate to lance-ovate, ± flat, ± dull, tan, attached ± loosely; abaxial ridge narrow, obscure below middle, cross-ribs ± above middle, rounded, wrinkled, ± flat below, tubercled; margins rounded, obscure, not entire; adaxial ridge deep-V-shaped, tubercled; scar basal (± oblique), on short peg. Varieties intergrade in San Joaquin Valley. [Online Interchange]
Flower: corolla limb 2–4 mm diam.
Common. Vernal pools, wet sites in grassland, conifer forest, sagebrush scrub; < 2130 m. Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada Foothills, n&c High Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province; southeastern Oregon, western Nevada. Apr–Jul [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Plants ± intermediate to Plagiobothrys bracteatus have been collected; those from Lake Co. with generally small fruit calyx, delicate growth habit need study.
Previous taxon: Plagiobothrys stipitatus
Next taxon: Plagiobothrys stipitatus var. stipitatus
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 25 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Plagiobothrys, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=63906, accessed on Oct 25 2014
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Plagiobothrys stipitatus var. micranthus|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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