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BORAGINACEAE BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY

Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted

Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.

Key to Boraginaceae

PHACELIA

Genevieve K. Walden, Robert Patterson, Laura M. Garrison & Debra R. Hansen

Annual to perennial herb, generally glandular-hairy, taprooted or from ± thick caudex. Leaf: generally cauline, generally alternate, simple to 2-pinnately compound, generally ± reduced upward. Inflorescence: cyme, generally dense, coiled, generally 1-sided; pedicels generally <= 5 mm, generally straight. Flower: sepals generally 5, generally fused at base, generally equal, generally ± alike, generally persistent, enlarging in fruit; corolla generally deciduous, at least some persistent and withering in fruit in some species, rotate to tubular or bell- or funnel-shaped, ± white, blue, purple, pink or yellow, tube and throat not always clearly differentiated, generally glabrous inside, scales of tube base 0 or free from or fused to filament bases, generally white, nectary gland on petal midvein generally 0, each petal with generally 0, sometimes 2–many translucent areas, 2 or 4 of which parallel; stamens generally attached at same level, generally equal, generally exserted, bases generally not wider, with 2 or generally 0 wings, filaments generally white, pollen generally tan; ovary chamber 1, sometimes appearing as 2 due to intrusion of the 2 placentas, placentas parietal, enlarging and meeting in fruit, style 2-lobed, generally hairy proximal to lobes, disk proximal to ovary generally inconspicuous. Fruit: capsule, oblong to spheric, generally rounded at base, generally beaked. Seed: 1–many (number sometimes due to ovule abortion), oblong to spheric, generally brown; abaxially generally pitted or cross-furrowed.
± 210 species: America; some cultivated for ornamental. (Greek: cluster, from dense inflorescence) Dermatitis caused by contact with hairs, especially glandular, of P. campanularia, P. crenulata, P. ixodes, P. minor, P. parryi, P. pedicellata (Reynolds et al. 1986 Contact Dermatitis 14:39–44). [Hansen et al. 2009 Syst Bot 34:737–746; Walden & Patterson 2012 Madroño 59:211–222] Some California per species intergrade, hybridize, difficult to distinguish. Phacelia ixodes Kellogg, included in TJM (1993), not known from California. Since TJM2, Phacelia dalesiana J.T. Howell transferred to Howellanthus as Howellanthus dalesianus (J.T. Howell) Walden & R. Patt. Regarding indument in this treatment: minute (for e.g., puberulent) < 0.2 mm; short = 0.2–2 mm; long > 2 mm.
Unabridged references: [Gilbert et al. 2005 Syst Bot 30:627–634; Reynolds et al. 1986 Contact Dermatitis 14:39–44; Reynolds & Rodriguez 1979 Phytochemistry 18:1567–1568; Reynolds & Rodriguez 1981a Phytochemistry 20:1365–1366; Reynolds & Rodriguez 1981b Planta Medica 43:187–193; Reynolds & Rodriguez 1986 Phytochemistry 25:1617–1619.]

Key to Phacelia

P. cicutaria Greene (Group 2)
NATIVE
Annual 18–60 cm. Stem: ascending to erect, simple to branched, stiff-hairy, glandular. Leaf: 20–150 mm; blade generally > petiole, ovate to ± oblong, deeply lobed to compound, segments toothed. Inflorescence: axis long-stiff-hairy; proximal flowers ± well separated; distal flowers dense. Flower: calyx lobes 6–8 mm, 9–12 mm in fruit, ± linear, long-stiff-hairy, glandular, spreading from base of fruit; corolla 8–12 mm, bell-shaped, scales fused to filament bases, ovate; stamens 8–12 mm, glabrous; style 8–12 mm, cleft 3/4. Fruit: 3–4 mm, ± spheric, sparsely short-hairy, with stiff, bulb-based hairs > 1 mm. Seed: 2–4, 1.5–3 mm, pitted. If recognized taxonomically, plants with calyx lobes unequal, strongly not alike, ± linear or lanceolate to oblanceolate, seeds 2 assignable to Phacelia cicutaria Greene var. heterosepala (Greene) J.T. Howell (Cascade Range Foothills). [Online Interchange]

P. cicutaria var. hispida (A. Gray) J.T. Howell
NATIVE
Flower: calyx lobes ± gray-long-stiff-hairy; corolla lavender.
n=11. Rocky slopes, oak/pine woodland, grassland; < 2000 m. South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California, w Desert; Baja California. Feb–Jun [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Phacelia, Revision 1, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=63393, accessed on Oct 22 2014

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click for enlargement Phacelia cicutaria var. hispida
See CalPhotos for additional images
2003 Christopher L. Christie

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Phacelia cicutaria var. hispida Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.