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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1–many in generally ± cyme-like cluster; each head generally with ± calyx-like involucre of 1–many series of phyllaries (involucral bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1–many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into ± persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3–5; stamens 4–5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally ± 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing ± brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
± 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Bahia; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Taxa of Arida in TJM2 treated here in Leucosyris. —Scientific Editors: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
Key to Asteraceae
Annual or perennial herb from taproot, occasionally with branched caudex, generally scapose; sap milky. Leaf: generally all basal, generally lanceolate to oblanceolate, long-tapered to obtuse, entire, toothed, or 1–2-pinnately lobed, 1° lobes generally ± opposite, generally on proximal 2/3; 2° lobes 0–1; faces glabrous to densely hairy, hairs generally white-opaque and glandless. Inflorescence: heads liguliflorous, 1, erect, long-peduncled; involucre cylindric to ovoid or bell-shaped in flower, ovoid in fruit, glabrous to densely hairy, hairs white-opaque and glandless or colorless- or yellow-translucent (occasionally with purple cross-walls) and glandular, glands generally yellow, occasionally purple; phyllaries in 2–5(+) series, ± equal in flower, often strongly graduated in fruit, generally entire, green to rosy-purple, often with darker spots or midstripe, outer erect or tips spreading to recurved, inner erect, elongating with fruit or not, ± reflexed when dry; receptacle flat, epaleate (paleate), generally pitted. Flower: 5–500; ligules ± equaling to much exceeding involucre, yellow, or orange, pink, red, or purple, readily withering. Fruit: cylindric to fusiform or obconic (inflated), ± 10-ribbed, generally ± white to brown or purple-black (gray), glabrous to minutely coarse-hairy or puberulent; beak << to >> body (0); pappus of many fine, simple, white bristles.Key to Agoseris
11 species: America. (Greek: chief or goat + chicory, meaning is obscure) [Baird 2006 FNANM 19:323–335] Closely related to Nothocalais. Self-pollination complicates variation in some species; polyploidy and hybridization blur distinctions between some taxa.
Unabridged references: [Baird 1996 Ph.D. Dissertation Univ of Texas, Austin]
Perennial herb 10–50 cm, generally erect. Leaf: petiole generally ± purple; blade generally 10–30 cm, narrowly to broadly oblanceolate, acute to long-tapered, entire or toothed to irregularly lobed; lobes generally 2–4 pairs, ± lanceolate, ± spreading; faces ± glabrous, ± glaucous. Inflorescence: peduncle ± hairy or glabrous in age, base of head densely hairy to tomentose (± glabrous); involucre 15–20 mm in flower, 25–30 mm in fruit; phyllaries (except margin) green or ± rosy-purple, often darker speckled or spotted (and/or midstripe darker); outer lance-linear to ovate, long-tapered to acute, glabrous or hairs ± white-opaque, glandless, margin ciliate especially towards base; inner elongating with fruit. Flower: 15–100; tube generally 7–9 mm, ligule generally 5–10 mm, equaling or exceeding involucre, generally orange (rarely yellow, pink, red, or purple), generally drying ± purple; anthers 2–5 mm. Fruit: generally all similar; body 6–9 mm, cylindric to obconic, tip abruptly to gradually tapered; ribs straight, often thickened upward, glabrous to minutely rough-hairy (especially upward), sometimes minutely puberulent; beak 5–10 mm, generally slender, ± = body; pappus 9–15 mm, in 2–4 series.
2n=18,36. Meadows, scrub, forest, streamsides; 1500–3500 m. Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau (mostly Warner Mountains), East of Sierra Nevada (Sweetwater Mtns); to Alaska, western Canada, Quebec, South Dakota, New Mexico. Hybridizes with Agoseris glauca, Agoseris grandiflora, Agoseris monticola, Agoseris parviflora. A 2nd variety occurs from Nevada to Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico. Jun–Sep [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Agoseris gracilens (A. Gray) Greene; Agoseris greenei (A. Gray) Rydb.; Agoseris lackschewitzii Douglass M. Hend. & R.K. Moseley]
Previous taxon: Agoseris apargioides var. maritima
Next taxon: Agoseris X dasycarpa
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 31 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Agoseris, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=6312, accessed on Jul 31 2014
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|Agoseris aurantiaca var. aurantiaca|
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© 1987 Gary A. Monroe
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