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Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted

Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.

Key to Boraginaceae


Robert Patterson & Richard R. Halse

Annual. Stem: simple to branched, prostrate to erect, fleshy, brittle, angled or winged, glabrous to generally bristly (prickly). Leaf: cauline, lower generally opposite, upper opposite or alternate, generally reduced; petiole generally bristly-ciliate; blade pinnate-toothed or -lobed, generally bristly. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in leaf axils or opposite leaves; pedicels longer in fruit, recurved. Flower: calyx bell-shaped to rotate, sinuses generally with spreading or reflexed appendages; corolla bell-shaped to rotate, white, blue, or purple, spotted or marked or not; stamens included; ovary chamber 1, style 1, generally 1/3–1/2 forked. Fruit: generally 2–7 mm wide, spheric to ovoid, hairy, generally enclosed by calyx. Seed: ovoid, smooth, wrinkled or pitted, with a conic, colorless appendage at 1 end.
11 species: southeastern United States, western North America. (Greek: woodland-loving)
Unabridged references: [Constance 1941 Univ California Publ Bot 19:341–398]

Key to Nemophila

N. parviflora Benth.
Stem: glabrous or soft- to bristly-hairy. Leaf: lower cut or lobes shallow, dissimilar, merging or not stalked; upper opposite or alternate. Inflorescence: pedicels 2–15 mm, < 30 mm in fruit. Flower: calyx lobes 1–3 mm, appendages < 1 mm in fruit; corolla 2–4 mm, 1–5 mm wide, bell-shaped, white or blue, tube >= filaments; style < 2 mm. Seed: 2–4, yellow to brick-red, smooth but shallow-pitted.
n=9. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Nemophila parviflora Douglas ex Benth.

N. parviflora var. austiniae (Eastw.) Brand
Stem: ± glabrous to bristly. Leaf: glabrous to bristly, blade base tapered; lower 1–2 cm, lobes 5–7, shallow, oblong or ovate, obtuse, entire; upper opposite, short-stalked. Flower: corolla 1–3 mm wide.
Meadows, streambanks, roadsides, forest, ridges; 1100–2300 m. Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau; to Washington, Idaho, Utah. May–Jul [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Dec 1 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Nemophila, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Dec 1 2015

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click for enlargement Nemophila parviflora var. austiniae
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2005 Norman Jensen

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Nemophila parviflora var. austiniae Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.