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BORAGINACEAE BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY

Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted

Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.

Key to Boraginaceae

MERTENSIA BLUEBELL

Ronald B. Kelley & Elaine Joyal

Perennial herb, generally from taprooted, branched caudex; glabrous to spreading-hairy. Stem: ± erect. Leaf: cauline and generally basal, alternate, generally petioled, upper generally sessile. Inflorescence: generally panicle- or raceme-like cymes; bracts 0. Flower: calyx generally deep-lobed; corolla often ± cylindric or bell-shaped, blue, generally pink in bud, tube generally well developed, exceeding calyx, abruptly expanded at throat, with or without ring of inner hairs, appendages present or not; filaments often ± flat, generally attached ± below appendages, anthers included. Fruit: nutlets generally wrinkled, attached near or below middle.
± 50 species: North America, temperate Eurasia. (F.C. Mertens, German botanist, plant collector, 1764–1831) Hybrids common; identification sometimes difficult, especially in Modoc Plateau.
Unabridged references: [Williams 1937 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 24: 17–159; Milek 1988 Ph.D. Dissertation Univ of Northern Colorado; Strachan 1988 Ph.D. Dissertation Univ of Montana]

Key to Mertensia

M. oblongifolia (Nutt.) G. Don SAGEBRUSH BLUEBELL
NATIVE
Plant generally < 4 dm from stout, deep, thick-taprooted, fleshy caudex, glabrous to strigose. Stem: many, firmly attached. Leaf: basal generally well developed on flowering plants; cauline generally 2.5–7 × longer than wide, lateral veins obscure, lower generally petioled. Inflorescence: ± panicle-like, generally dense. Flower: calyx 2.5–6 mm; corolla 10–20 mm, limb 0.5–0.8 × tube, tube > calyx, without or occasionally with sparse ring of hairs inside, appendaged; filaments wide, ± = anthers; style ± included. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Polyploid complex (2n=24,48); varieties sometimes together in Warner Mountains.

M. oblongifolia var. nevadensis (A. Nelson) L.O. Williams
NATIVE
Stem: generally < 20 cm. Leaf: blade ± glabrous, occasionally bumpy both surfaces. Flower: corolla tube glabrous inside.
2n=24. Open slopes, drier meadows, generally spring-moist places, especially with sagebrush; 1760–2510 m. High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, Warner Mountains, n East of Sierra Nevada (Sweetwater, Masonic mtns, Bodie Hills); to eastern Oregon, Idaho, Colorado. Most common var. in California. Apr–Jun [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Mertensia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=61904, accessed on Sep 23 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Mertensia oblongifolia var. nevadensis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.