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Bruce D. Parfitt, except as noted

Perennial herb, shrub, tree, generally fleshy. Stem: cylindric to spheric, or flat; surface smooth, tubercled, or ribbed (grooved); nodal areoles bearing flowers. Leaf: generally 0 or early-deciduous, flat to ± cylindric. Spines: areoles generally with central, radial spines, occasionally with glochids. Flower: generally 1 per areole, bisexual [unisexual], sessile, radial [bilateral]; perianth parts generally many [5], scale-like to petal-like; stamens many; ovary inferior [superior], style 1, stigma lobes generally several [many]. Fruit: dry to fleshy or juicy, indehiscent to variously dehiscent, spiny, scaly, or naked; tubercled or smooth. Seed: generally many, occasionally 0–few.
± 125 genera, ± 1800 species: America (especially deserts), Africa; many cultivated, some edible. [Parfitt & Gibson 2004 FNANM 4:92–257] Spines smaller, fewer (0) in shade forms; yellow spines blacken in age. Introduced species increasingly escape cultivation. Hybridization common in some genera. Taxa of Escobaria in TJM (1993) moved to Coryphantha. —Scientific Editors: Bruce D. Parfitt, Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Hunt 2006 The New Cactus Lexicon, DH Books, Milborne Port, England]

Key to Cactaceae

Generally erect (decumbent or prostrate), branched or not, branches 0–9(50). Stem: 5–30 cm, [1.8]3–7.5[20] cm diam, spheric to cylindric [or obconic], firm to soft, not regularly segmented; ribs 0, tubercles prominent, conic to cylindric, not grooved. Spines: [2]14–64(90) per areole, < 2 mm diam, needle-like [to hair-like or bristle-like], glabrous [or plumose], straight or hooked [or curved to crinkly]; central spines 1–4 [0–many] per areole, generally hooked. Flower: lateral, in axils of tubercles, 1–5 [7.5] cm diam; perianth cream to white, pink, purple, or lavender; ovary glabrous, spines 0, scales 0. Fruit: club-shaped or cylindric to ovoid [or barrel-shaped], indehiscent, generally red, spines 0. Seed: 0.8–1.5 mm, generally shiny, generally pitted or raised-netted, black [brown to ± red or ± yellow], occasionally with aril.
150 species: North America. (Latin: nipple) [Hunt 1984 Bradleya 2:65–96; Hunt 1985 Bradleya 3:53–66; Hunt 1987 Bradleya 5:17–48]

Key to Mammillaria

M. grahamii Engelm. var. grahamii GRAHAM'S FISHHOOK CACTUS
Stem: generally several (1–many), 7–15 cm, 4–7 cm diam, spheric to cylindric, firm; tubercle axillary bristles 0. Spines: central spines 1–2 per areole, 12–15 mm, >= 1 hooked; radial spines 17–28(35), 6–12 mm. Flower: 15–25 mm, 20–30 mm diam; outer perianth parts minutely fringed; inner perianth parts 9–16. Fruit: 12–25 mm, long-club-shaped in age. Seed: aril 0.
2n=22. Sandy or rocky canyons, washes, plains, creosote-bush scrub; 300–900 m. ne Sonoran Desert (se San Bernardino Co.); Arizona, northern Mexico. [Mammillaria milleri (Britton & Rose) Boed.; Mammillaria microcarpa Engelm.] Apr [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

Previous taxon: Mammillaria dioica
Next taxon: Mammillaria tetrancistra


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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 29 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Mammillaria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 29 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Mammillaria grahamii var. grahamii Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.