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CAPRIFOLIACEAE HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY

Charles D. Bell, family description, key to genera

Subshrub to small tree or vine. Leaf: opposite, simple or compound; stipules generally 0. Flower: calyx tube fused to ovary, limb generally 5-lobed; corolla radial or bilateral, rotate to cylindric, generally 5-lobed; stamens generally 5, epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes; ovary inferior, 1–5-chambered, style 1. Fruit: berry, drupe.
5 genera, 220 species: especially northern temperate. [Backlund & Pyck 1998 Taxon 47:657–661] Linnaea moved to Linnaeaceae; Sambucus and Viburnum to Adoxaceae. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Caprifoliaceae

LONICERA HONEYSUCKLE

Charles D. Bell & Lauramay T. Dempster

Shrub, twining to erect. Leaf: simple, entire, generally short-petioled; 1–2 pairs beneath inflorescence often fused around stem. Inflorescence: spikes, ± interrupted, on axillary peduncles or at ends of branches, or flowers paired on axillary peduncles and subtended by 0–3 pairs of bracts. Flower: calyx limb 0 or generally 5-toothed, generally persistent; corolla 5-lobed, ± bilateral, 2-lipped (upper 4-lobed), swollen at base on 1 side; ovary chambers 2–3. Fruit: berry, generally round; seeds generally > 2.
± 200 species: temperate, subtropical North America, Europe, Asia, northern Africa. (Johann Lonitzer, German herbalist, physician, 1499–1569, and/or his son, Adam Lonitzer, German botanist, 1528–1586) [Howarth & Donoghue 2006 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(24):9101–9106]
Unabridged note: According to Ferguson (1966 J Arnold Arbor 47:33–59), genus named "in honor of Johann Lonitzer, latinized Lonicerus, 1499–1569, a German herbalist and physician, not Adam Lonitzer, 1528–1586; see Linnaeus, Crit. Bot. 93 1737." In fact, although Linnaeus indicated in Critica Botanica (Hort translation, Ray Society, 1938, p. 76) that the genus Lonicera was named in honor of Johann Lonitzer, in Hortus Cliffortianus (1737; p. 58) he states "...Loniceram ab Adamo Lonicero, antiquo Botanico...".

Key to Lonicera

L. involucrata (Richardson) Spreng. TWINBERRY
NATIVE
Erect, 6–30 dm; herbage with stalked glands, sparsely hairy. Leaf: 3–12 cm; petiole 2–10 mm; blade elliptic to ovate, base rounded or tapered, tip acute to acuminate. Inflorescence: flowers paired; peduncle 12–32 mm; bracts in 2 pairs, leaf-like, forming a conspicuous involucre, ± enveloping ovaries, outer opposite flowers, 7–12 mm, wide-ovate, generally acute, inner 4–8 mm, alternate flowers, deeply 2-lobed to entire, truncate, densely glandular. Flower: calyx limb 0; corolla 12–18 mm, ± cylindric to narrowly bell-shaped, ± yellow, hairy, lobes ± 2 mm, subequal, ± spreading; stamens generally included; ovaries of flower pair free. Fruit: 6–10 mm, black, in enlarged, purple or red, spreading or reflexed involucre. [Online Interchange]

L. involucrata var. ledebourii (Eschsch.) Jeps.
NATIVE
Plant 15–36 dm. Leaf: leathery. Flower: corolla yellow, strongly tinged orange or red, tube cylindric; stigma included or ± exserted.
Moist places; < 1500 m. North Coast, High North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, Central Coast; southern Oregon. May–Jul [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Lonicera, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=61081, accessed on Nov 22 2014

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click for enlargement Lonicera involucrata var. ledebourii
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2007 Neal Kramer

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Lonicera involucrata var. ledebourii Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.