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APIACEAE (Umbelliferae) CARROT FAMILY

Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally ± persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs.
300 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Apiaceae

LOMATIUM
Perennial herb, from taproot or generally deep-seated tuber, glabrous to tomentose. Stem: 0 or erect, simple or branched; base fibrous or not. Leaf: blade oblong to triangular-ovate or obovate, ternately, pinnately, or ternate-pinnately dissected or compound, segments or leaflets thread-like to wide; old basal leaf sheaths fibrous-persistent or not. Inflorescence: umbels compound, peduncled; bracts generally 0; bractlets generally present, 0 to conspicuous; rays, pedicels spreading to erect, generally webbed at base. Flower: calyx lobes generally 0; petals wide, yellow, white, or purple, tips narrowed; ovary tip projection 0. Fruit: linear to obovate, compressed front-to-back; marginal ribs widely to narrowly thin or thick-winged, others thread-like; oil tubes 1–several per rib-interval; fruit axis divided to base. Seed: face flat to concave.
± 75 species: central and southern North America. (Greek: bordered, from prominent marginal fruit wing) [Constance & Ertter 1996 Madroño 43:515–521] Fruit wing width given as width of 1 wing, not both together. Lomatium roseanum Cronquist is reported from High Cascade Range, northern High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau.
Unabridged references: [Schlessman 1984 Syst Bot Monogr 4:1–55; Matthias 1938 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 25:225–297]

Key to Lomatium

L. triternatum (Pursh) J.M. Coult. & Rose
NATIVE
Plant 1.5–10 dm, generally finely soft-hairy or puberulent; taproot slender to massive. Stem: prominent. Leaf: petiole 7–20 cm, sheathing ± to middle; blade 7–20 cm, oblong-ovate to triangular-ovate or obovate, 1–2-ternate-pinnate, leaflets 1.5–20 cm, linear to lance-ovate, generally entire; cauline leaves 0 or generally sheathing throughout. Inflorescence: peduncle generally 1–4.5 dm, spreading to erect; bractlets (0)3–8, 1–5 mm, thread-like to lance-linear, ± scarious; rays 5–20, 2–10 cm, spreading or spreading-ascending, unequal; pedicels 1–10 mm. Flower: corolla yellow; ovary glabrous to densely puberulent. Fruit: 6–22 mm, oblong, puberulent or glabrous; wings generally < body in width. Lomatium triternatum var. anomalum (J.M. Coult. & Rose) Mathias evidently not in California. Varieties poorly defined. Variable in Great Basin Floristic Province, adjacent areas. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Lomatium triternatum var. anomalum (M.E. Jones ex J.M. Coult. & Rose) Mathias.

L. triternatum var. macrocarpum (J.M. Coult. & Rose) Mathias
NATIVE
Flower: ovary densely puberulent.
2n=44. Sagebrush-juniper, pine woodland, open slopes, meadows; 200–1500 m. Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province; to Washington, Idaho, Nevada. Apr–Jul [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Lomatium alatum (J.M. Coult. & Rose) J.M. Coult. & Rose; Lomatium giganteum J.M. Coult. & Rose]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 1 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Lomatium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=61063, accessed on Sep 1 2014

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click for enlargement Lomatium triternatum var. macrocarpum
See CalPhotos for additional images
1990 Gary A. Monroe

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Lomatium triternatum var. macrocarpum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.