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CAMPANULACEAE BELLFLOWER FAMILY

Nancy R. Morin, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [tree]. Leaf: generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers 1; terminal or in axils of leaf-like or reduced bracts. Flower: bisexual, cleistogamous or open, radial or bilateral, inverted (pedicel twisted 180°) or not; hypanthium generally present, ± fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, petals generally fused, tube deeply divided on 1 side or not, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or ± fused (anthers, filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior or 1/2 inferior (superior in fruit), chambers 1–3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2–5-branched. Fruit: generally capsule, open on sides or top by pores or short valves. Seed: many.
± 90 genera, ± 2500 species: worldwide. [Haberle et al. 2008 J Molec Evol 66:350–361] Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia). Subfamilies sometimes treated as families. Positions of flower parts given after flowering inversion, if any. Parishella moved to Nemacladus. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Lammers 2007 World Checklist and Bibliography of Campanulaceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.]

Key to Campanulaceae

LOBELIA

Tina Ayers

Biennial, perennial herb [shrub], glabrous or hairy. Leaf: mostly basal or all cauline, 0.5–1.5 cm wide, lance-linear to elliptic, sessile, margin with small, gland-tipped teeth; cauline alternate. Inflorescence: raceme [or spike or panicle]. Flower: bilateral, inverted in full bloom by twisted pedicel; corolla red, blue (or white), tube entire or with an upper sinus, limb strongly 2-lipped, 2 lobes of upper lip < 3 of lower; stamens fused, generally 2 smaller anthers each with terminal tuft of bristles, 1 sometimes triangular or horn-like, others linear, shorter; ovary ± spheric, chambers 2, placentas 2, axile. Fruit: spheric, valves 2, at top, within sepals, short.
± 350 species: ± worldwide. (Matthias de l'Obel, Flemish botanist, 1538–1616)

Key to Lobelia

L. cardinalis L. var. pseudosplendens McVaugh CARDINAL FLOWER
NATIVE
Biennial, short-lived perennial herb. Stem: erect, 4–20 dm, < 1.5 cm diam, purple-red. Flower: corolla glabrous, red (white), tube 15–20 mm, upper sinus >> lateral; anther tube 3.5–4.5 mm, triangular bristle at tips of 2 shorter anthers 0.
n=7. Stream bottoms; 450–1600 m. San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, Desert Mountains (Panamint Range); to western Texas, Mexico. Seriously TOXIC, especially when used as a home remedy. Aug–Oct [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Incl by McVaugh in Lobelia cardinalis subsp. graminea (Lam.) McVaugh, with 3 other varieties including Lobelia cardinalis var. multiflora (Paxton) McVaugh (plants with dense, short hairs throughout, leaves lanceolate to ovate, probably not in California).

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Next taxon: Lobelia dunnii var. serrata

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Lobelia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=60969, accessed on Dec 22 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Lobelia cardinalis var. pseudosplendens Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.