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LINNAEACEAE TWIN FLOWER FAMILY

Charles D. Bell, family description

Subshrub [to small tree]. Leaf: opposite, simple [compound]; stipules generally 0. Flower: calyx tube fused to ovary, limb generally 5-lobed; corolla radial [or bilateral], rotate to cylindric, generally 5-lobed; stamens generally 4 inserted at 2 levels, epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes; ovary inferior, 1–5-chambered, style 1. Fruit: achene or capsule, 1-seeded.
4 genera, 35 species: especially northern temperate. [Donoghue et al. 2001 Harvard Pap Bot 6:459–479] Incl in Caprifoliaceae in TJM (1993), and possibly in future. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Backlund & Pyck 1998 Taxon 47:657–661; Donoghue et al. 2001 Harvard Pap Bot 6:459–479]
Unabridged note: Incl in Caprifoliaceae in TJM (1993), and possibly in future according to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/APweb/welcome.html), which states, in part, "The whole lot might usefully be combined in a Caprifoliaceae s.l. (see also APG 2003), since similarities between the families are considerable and differences are mostly slight."

LINNAEA TWIN FLOWER

Charles D. Bell & Lauramay T. Dempster

Plant creeping, evergreen. Inflorescence: flowers generally 2 at forked tip of slender erect peduncle, nodding. Flower: calyx lobes slender, tapered; corolla bell- to funnel-shaped above slender tube; stamens 4, 2 shorter and inserted near corolla tube base; ovary chambers 3, 2 with aborting ovules, 1 with 1 developing ovule. Fruit: capsule, 3-valved.
1 sp., ± 3 vars.: circumboreal. (Named for Linnaeus, often depicted with a sample of this, one of his favorite plants)

L. borealis L. var. longiflora Torr.
NATIVE
Stem: 15–20 cm, slender. Leaf: petiole ± 2 mm; blade 12–18 mm, ovate, serrate above middle. Inflorescence: peduncle ± 6 cm; inner bracts 2, < outer, straight-hairy; outer bracts 2, ± 1 mm, ± round, surrounding ovary, densely glandular-hairy. Flower: corolla 10–13 mm, hairy adaxially, white to pink.
Moist shady places in conifer forest; 200–2600 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau; to northern Alaska. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Linnaea borealis L. subsp. americana (Forbes) Hultén ex R.T. Clausen]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Linnaea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=60893, accessed on Nov 22 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Linnaea borealis var. longiflora Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.