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John M. Miller, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb; generally fleshy. Stem: 1–many, generally glabrous. Leaf: simple, alternate or opposite. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal; cyme, raceme, panicle, umbel, or flower 1. Flower: bisexual, radial; sepals generally 2(9), free; petals (1)2–19, free or ± fused; stamens 1–many, epipetalous or not, anthers pink, rose, or yellow; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovules 1–many, placenta basal or free-central; styles (0)1–8, generally fused at base, branched. Fruit: capsule, circumscissile or 2–3-valved. Seed: 1–many, shiny or ± pebbly or sculptured, black or gray, generally with oil-filled appendage as food for ants.
± 22 genera, ± 230 species: generally temperate America, Asia, Australia, Europe, Kerguelen Is, New Zealand, southern Africa, poorly represented in Europe; some cultivated (Lewisia, Calandrinia). [Ogburn & Edwards 2009 Amer J Bot 96:391–408] All California genera previously included in Portulacaceae; details of flowers, seeds require 20× magnification. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Applequist et al. 2006 Syst Bot 31:310–319; Nyffeler et al. 2008 Haseltonia 14: 26–36]
Unabridged note: May include Hectorellaceae.

Key to Montiaceae


John M. Miller & Lauramay T. Dempster

Perennial herb generally from short, thick, ± branched taproot; tuberous root generally 0 (or spheric). Stem: prostrate to erect, scape-like or branched. Leaf: generally in basal rosette and cauline, simple, entire or not; base wide; margin generally ± translucent. Inflorescence: ± scapose; cyme, panicle, raceme, or ± umbel; stems 1–many, generally leafless but bracted, disjointing in age or not, 1–many flowered; pedicel 0–30 mm. Flower: sepals 2–8, free, persistent; petals 4–19, white, cream, yellow, orange, pink, rose, purple, overlapped in bud, often with pink or dark purple veins; stamens 1–50; styles 2–8, fused at base, stigmas 2–8, thread-like. Fruit: 6–9 mm, spheric or ovoid, circumscissile near middle or below, translucent. Seed: 1–50, dark, generally shiny, smooth or finely tubercled, 1–4 mm in size.
18 species: western North America, 16 in flora. (Captain Meriwether Lewis, of Lewis & Clark Expedition, 1774–1809) [Wilson et al. 2005 W N Amer Naturalist 65:345–358] Many hybrids, cultivated, including Lewisia ×whiteae Purdy in California; Lewisia columbiana (A. Gray) B.L. Rob. not in California.
Unabridged references: [Colley & Mineo 1985 Pacific Hort 46; Davidson 2000 Lewisias (Portland); Dempster 1996 Madroño 43:415–416; Elliott 1966 Bull Alpine Gard Soc Gr Brit 34:1–76; Foster, Carroll, & Hipkins 1997 Fremontia 25:15–19; Gankin & Hildreth 1968 Four Seasons 2(4):12–14; Heckard & Stebbins 1974 Brittonia 26:305–308; Hershkovitz 1990 Phytologia 68:267–270; Hershkovitz & Hogan 2003 FNANM 4:476–485; Hohn 1975 Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ of Washington; Mathew 1989 Kew Magazine Monogr; Daubenmire 1975 Syesis 8:9–23]
Unabridged note: Many hybrids, cultivars (Mathew 1989), including Lewisia ×whiteae Purdy in California, as well as Lewisia columbiana (Howell ex A. Gray) B.L. Rob. from Douglas Co., Oregon north to British Columbia; Lewisia maguirei A.H. Holmgren endemic to Nevada; Lewisia sacajaweana B.L. Wilson & E. Rey-Vizgirdas restricted to Idaho; Lewisia tweedyi, endemic to northern Cascades of Washington, British Columbia now placed in Cistanthe.

Key to Lewisia

L. cotyledon (S. Watson) B.L. Rob. CLIFF MAIDS
Leaf: many, rosetted, 3–14 cm, ovate or spoon-shaped, fleshy, entire or not, tapered to base, tip rounded. Inflorescence: stems generally 1–6, 10–30 cm, each with a ± flat-topped, 12–many-flowered cyme, ± umbel, or panicle; flowers exserted from leaves; bracts at each flower node, gland-toothed; pedicels generally < flowers. Flower: sepals 2, ± 1/3 × corolla, round or truncate, margin gland-toothed; petals 5–13, (8)10–20 mm, oblanceolate or obovate, generally pink-purple with pale and darker stripes, less often white, cream with pink-orange stripes, yellow, or orange, tip ± notched; stamens 5–12; stigmas 2–4. Fruit: 3–5 mm. Seed: 4–15, 1.5 mm.
n=14. Hybrids with Lewisia leeana are Lewisia ×whiteae. [Online Interchange]

L. cotyledon var. heckneri (C.V. Morton) Munz HECKNER'S LEWISIA
Leaf: margin dentate. Flower: petals 12–20 mm.
Crevices in cliffs, rocky slopes of granite or basalt, conifer forest; 225–2200 m. Klamath Ranges. [Oreobroma heckneri C.V. Morton; Lewisia heckneri (C.V. Morton) R.B. Smith] May–Jul [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Lewisia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015

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click for enlargement Lewisia cotyledon var. heckneri
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2004 Norman Jensen

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Lewisia cotyledon var. heckneri Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.